Th e readers of this text who are waiting to see our patent solution on the given subject will probably be disappointed at this moment. Th e often very contradictory opinions se- lected for the purpose of this essay perhaps illustrate enough that it is simply impossible to arrive at any unambiguous interpretation here. It was just art which was utterly topical — and, beyond doubt, fashionable.
Th e local milieu was very ready to accept it, and its quality and means of expression perfectly complied with the expectations and needs of the society of that period. Translated by Lucie Vidmar. Kupfers- techer ernannte. Dienste aufgenommen wurde. Maximilian II. Sandrart I, […] [ p.
pronoun envy literary uses of linguistic gender studies in language gender and sexuality Manual
Dieser Monachr beschloss, die Burg ganz neu zu bauenm und Vincentius Scamozzi ward ausersehen, diesen Bau zu leiten, womit auch im Jahre der Anfang gemacht wurde. Klosse, und Franz Paling, sodenn Joh. Theil II. Buch III. Fuesslin allgem. Prag An diesem. Klosse, Franz Palling, Joh. An Outline of His Genealogy and Biography]. The Time of Stars and Mandrake. Bohuslav Bal-. Rome and in the world. And rightly so, for this great. Baroque painter and the city upon the Vltava River had always belonged to each.
Th e Italian Jesuit Giovanni Botero. Th e Molta [ i. Th e Lesser Prague contains a noble castle built on a hill, and the Cathedral. Th is part of the city also includes the Jewish ghetto, which is a town in its own. Th e New Town is divided from the Old Town by a moat, which used to be deep, but by now it has been levelled with the surrounding terrain, and there are orchards on it. All these parts of the city together are estimated to have no less a perimeter than that of the city of Rome.
In the mid—16th century Prague experienced a fast increase in demography and construction, thanks to which it achieved, at least within the frame of Central Europe, a position of a real metropolis. At that time Vienna, which was per- manently threatened by Turkish raids, disposed of roughly half the number of houses, compared to Prague. Prague had actually achieved its position of the regional metropolis gradually dur- ing the second half of the 16th century. Th e restrictive measures introduced by Ferdinand I opened up Prague for the aristocracy and the Court.
In the following decades however, the number increased rapidly. Th e disaster made some building sites available and thus facilitated a new and more generous town-planning solution. Th e Lesser Town became a town of the aristocracy and the centre of the Italian community in Prague. Bradburne et al. Schwarz ed. A diff erent picture could be seen on the right bank of the Vltava River. Th e Old Town, a bastion of burgher wealth and prosperity, kept its original mediaeval aspects both in its town planning, and in its architectural details.
As early as , however, prominent patricians could aff ord to employ even members of the court Castle workshop of Ferdinand I to have their houses reconstructed, as can be seen, for example in the Granovsky House within the Tyne courtyard. Newly built Renaissnce build- ings remained rather rare and the new style mainly found its use in the reconstruc- tions of Gothic houses. Th e foremost investors included a surprisingly low number of aristocrats, being mainly recruited from the town patricians. Th ose often included entrepreneurs recently moved there, who were almost programmatically uninter- ested in a possible share in the town self-government and rather concentrated on accumulating property.
Compared with the luxuriousness of the Old Town, the Renaissance New Town could appear as its poor relation. However, contempo- raneous vedute reveal that at least the fronts of their frequently two-storey houses were quickly adapted in accordance with the principles of Renaissance morphology. Th ose elements included arcaded courtyards, which, strangely enough, cannot be evidenced in the Lesser Town.
Th e relatively cosmopolitan agglomeration involved a rather complexly branching and possibly even ingeniously organised criminality, which the native population, rightly or not, often linked to the clans of the hot-bloodied Italians. His Work and His Time , Praha , p. Pazaurek, Carl Screta see note 26 , p. It came then as no surprise that hygiene was a recurrent problem in the three towns.
Prague had re-. Th e spatial arrangement of their seats seems symbolical. By coincidence, the variety of confessions was greatest on the eve of the crushing victory of the re-Catholicising powers. By he was mentioned as a revenue scribe. He held this high post until the Estates rebellion with a break between and , when he was temporarily suspended and had to defend himself, as he was indicted of embezzlement.
He must have been engaged in an important mint reform initiated by the Czech Estates, and in consequence, he was imprisoned and interrogated after the defeat of the rebellion.
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In the years and he was mentioned there as a councillor. As he, like all his family, adhered to evangelical creed, he decided to go abroad after the declaration of the Renewed Constitution. In he became a defensor of the Utraquist Consistory and after the rebellion started, he was elected one of the directors, members of the supreme body of the Estates, numbering thirty people, which administered the.
Pazaurek, Carl Screta see note 26 , pp. Johann Heinrich Zedler ed. How- ever, the scaff old in Prague only bore his name nailed onto it, for the culprit had not waited and quickly left the country. He worked as a scribe and later as an accountant of the Bohemian Chamber, occasionally also doing administrative jobs directly for Emperor and King Rudolf II. None of those possessions were indebted.
Fea- turing Renaissnace gables and Romanesque foundations, the building was pulled down in , and replaced by a neo-Gothic house. Morchendorf d. Th e eldest of her sons, a humanistic man of letters and physician Jan d. January 7, , left Prague for Basel, where he found refuge with his later father-in-law, Professor of theology Ludwig Lucius.
Later on he settled as a respected citizen and municipal physician in Schaffh ausen, with his sons also going for medicine. Jahrhundertes , Prag , p. According to. Studia historica 14, , pp. As for the religious line, the preamble is of principal interest, as is the part entitled. It was also based on posses-. Th e tension between the mostly non-Catholic Estates opposition and the Habsburg monarchs in the Kingdom of Bohemia escalated from the early 17th century. After the Battle of the White Mountain on November 8, , in which the demoralised.
Th e rule was resumed by Ferdinand II, for whom the White Mountain victory facilitated a quicker achievement of his political aims. Th e severest forms of punishment were applied in the Kingdom of Bohe- mia, compared to other countries that joined the rebelling Bohemian Estates. On Religion. List of the members of the Unity of Brethern. Pieter II de Jode after Aegidius. Aegidius Sadeler and workshop,.
Apotheosis of Emperor Ferdinand II. From that moment on it was diffi cult to diff erentiate whether the exile and loss of property occurred in consequence of a crime against the law, or if it was a forced exile and subsequent sale of possessions for religious reasons, stipulated in the Renewed Constitution and the imperial patents. Th ere is no doubt that in practice this law resulted in a number of frauds and speculations. Moreover, in view of the high number of off ers the deadline of four months in which to sell their properties was not feasible, so that Protestant exiles had to realise some of the sales when already abroad, by proxy, through author- ised representatives, reliable Catholics.
She sold. Re-Catholisation of the Aristocracy in Bohemia. Th e price was , Meissen groschen, out of which the seller only received an advance of 60, In their papers, they drew on theoretical concepts and studies from fields such as philosophy and cognitive studies and transferred these to cultural and literary analyses. The conference opened up an interdisciplinary dialogue to pose questions and formulate theoretical models from which the various disciplines could then profit in turn.
Where and how do emotional moments of the practice of writing leave traces within the text? How do authors play with this emotional impact? Where and how do authors explicitly deal with emotion and writing or with writing as an emotional practice within the texts? What kind of role do intermedial strategies play? Where does intertextuality come in? How is the topic and context of media devices incorporated language, writing tools, photography, film, the digital etc. What theoretical models do we have for analysing forms of emotion in modern literature? What are the interfaces and borders between sociocultural and scientific concepts of emotion and aesthetic emotions in the context of writing as agency?
Which types of emotion and which forms of literary emotions can be found in the context of writing as agency? The contributions, grouped into four thematic sections, ponder these questions and their implications. The first section is conceived as a theoretical introduction. In her programmatic proposal, Susanne Knaller presents the interconnections between emotions and the process of writing, summing up the core questions of the volume and establishing a theoretical basis for it.
Based on these considerations, she proposes a number of relevant and previously neglected fields and questions for further research on the issue of writing as a process and its relations to the field of emotions. Using extensive textual examples from various periods and genres, she gives a wide-ranging overview of strategies of emotional expression in world literature, relating the results of her text-immanent and receptionfocused analysis to neuroscientific findings. Gesine Lenore Schiewer chooses an original empiric approach to the topic.
With cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence as her point of departure, she draws on the theoretical and practical knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of technological processes to explore the interface between feeling, artificially generated emotional expression and the question of its authenticity. Finally, Angela Locatelli explores psychoanalytic discourses around religious feelings of ecstasy, thus highlighting another dimension of the spectrum of human emotions, and discusses them in a systematically comparative way. Aspects of depth-psychological views, central for the study of emotions, are thus made fruitful for theoretical deliberations, laying the groundwork for further studies.
The ensuing sections present contributions and analyses on the themes of Emotions Mediated, Emotions on Stage and in Literary Texts and Writing Wounds.
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The contributions to Emotions Mediated address possible reciprocal effects between emotions and various media. Discussions of these examples consider to what extent medial forms mediate or facilitate the expression of emotions, to what extent emotions are altered through these means of expression, and what implications different medial forms can have for emotional self-images and the image of others. Media imply specific discourses, sign systems and practices, and emotional expression necessitates the translation of emotion into these systems.
The contributions to this section highlight potential obstacles to this undertaking. These impediments can stem both from a subject s uncertain emotional state and from the process of textualization and the difficulties inherent in translating feelings into a medium in order to make them accessible to others.
Discussions and examples illustrate the complexity of emotions and offer suggestions for dealing with the potentially fraught issue of mediated emotions. The essays in this section show that writing, as an external movement, initiates and triggers internal as well as further external movements and consequently accompanies the construction of identities and personalities. The essays in the section Emotions on Stage and in Literary Texts point out techniques of inscribing emotions into written and spoken or performed texts, often with the explicit goal of directly affecting the recipients.
The shifts and modifications of the concept of emotions become particularly apparent in the. Dialogue and stage directions from early modern plays illustrate that emotional frame settings and rhetorical means are carefully chosen in order to anchor spectators feelings to the emotions depicted on stage. Conventionalized postures and poses, as also developed in 18th and 19th century studies of physiognomy, play an important role in the artistic depiction of emotions not just in a theatrical context but also in the visual arts and, based on this, in literature Yulia Marfutova.
Through these reflections upon the subject of human emotion as something potentially elusive, something which cannot be entirely depicted or analysed, the enquiry into emotions gains some deeply ambivalent aspects. The difficulties emerging in the previous section are at the centre of the section Writing Wounds, in which contributions focus on internal psychological processes on the part of literary characters and writing subjects. Thematically, mental injuries, personal insecurities and inner conflicts initiate a desperate and often illusionary quest for change and development.
The depth of some wounds seems to make it impossible to find adequate means of expression for them, as in the essay focusing on writing about the Shoah Tom Vanassche , while other authors and characters recognize and utilize writing as the last anchoring point in reality for desperate individuals experiencing psychosis Anna Ovaska, Laura Oulanne. Despite rarely recovering in the long term, writing helps these individuals to continue a process of reflection and supports them in preserving a continuous sense of identity. The states of astonishment and insecurity of literary subjects ultimately prove to be both productive on a literary level and demanded by audiences.
Emotions seem to be immanent in any kind of writing, since they are missed if absent. Writing is consequently emphasized as a process in which emotions are always visible in some manner, and this conceptualisation in turn opens up diverse possibilities to produce, construct, modify, delete, experience or analyse emotions both in the practice of writing and in textual analysis.
In recent years, the topic of emotion has been widely discussed in literary and cultural studies as well as in art theory. On the level of text the actions of literary characters have always been motivated by emotions such as guilt, hatred, love, jealousy and fear. To identify these fictional emotions, which are informed by the lifeworld and its practices, is an important aspect of literary understanding.
It proves difficult to decipher such emotions when they appear in the form of rhetorical images or topoi. In these instances, emotions such as jealousy or guilt serve as allegories, metaphors or symbols for concepts or values such as good and evil, mind and body, beautiful and ugly, or true and false. This is the case in texts of the premodern period e. While in analysing fictional characters or concrete motifs and rhetorical techniques, one can at least draw on given empirical conditions the text units and on hermeneutical arguments the correlation between knowledge, context and poetics , on the level of reception or 1 Cf.
As of late, this has been increasingly discussed in empirically-oriented studies which draw on approaches developed by experimental psychology and the neurosciences as well as on models inspired by biology; the latter proceed from a stimulus-reaction scheme and take up evolutionary arguments, necessities of everyday life and psychophysical conditions. From these complex constellations follows the important question as to how different levels of emotion that are effective in literary texts interrelate.
This includes the text levels on which emotions are explicitly or implicitly expressed and where text strategies are applied to trigger emotional responses. The aesthetic context of literary texts, moreover, encompasses production-related emotions which can be attributed to the author, but in part also relate to text strategies. Finally, literary texts also generate actual, empirically and experimentally verifiable emotions. As shown above, emotions and feelings are never isolated phenomena, but multistratified and variously interrelated complexes.
Hence, as a first definition, emotions are always bound to knowledge as well as to practical actions and conditions in the lifeworld. They are based in the conceptual and the abstract, yet also take practical effect. Moreover, it can be assumed that emotions portrayed in literature have strong inherent potential for steering emotional response. Therefore, the respective functions of emotions in the context of their potential reception and the related reciprocal relationship between aesthetic and nonaesthetic determinants are of particular interest.
Aesthetic emotions build on non-aesthetic emotional codes, formulas and patterns; in turn, they also contribute to generating these very codes, while counteracting them at the same time. This warrants a renegotiation of emotions. From this perspective, emotions can, therefore, be defined as behavioural patterns closely linked to the acquisition of communicative and practical competencies within a social group. The expression of emotions is determined by social frameworks and the specific medium-related conditions. For Andreas Reckwitz emotions are not considered as psychological or mental processes,.
In recent years, a distinction between emotion and feeling has proved helpful for this purpose. Emotions are linked to psychophysical conditions, such as knowledge, assessments and judgment, and to practical actions and determinants in the lifeworld. In the context of literary texts, we are concerned with aesthetically reflected verbalizations of models and paradigms of emotion. What comes up for discussion via literature are the triggering, experiencing, naming, describing, understanding, regulating and codifying of models of emotion and feeling along with their respective practices.
Since the 17th century, it has been agreed within western philosophy and science that emotions and feelings are a necessary foundation for our self-understanding and for understanding others. Emotions and feelings determine the relationship between body, mind and actions; they influence our modern self-understanding and our understanding of others, our approach to self-representation and to the representation of others.
Emotions determine decisions and judgments as well as the values and relevance we ascribe to others. Already Descartes described emotion as a state which is experienced in terms of a certain quality. This state represents an external object through its effect on the mind and evaluates the object, thus establishing a representation pattern that can be applied to other objects, as Dominique Perler specifies. Thus, emotion is also a part of reason. However, there is little agreement on how big this part is, nor on the exact nature of the relationship between neurological dispositions, psychophysical perception, phenomenological feeling, reflection and moral insight, emotional experience and ethically correct actions.
Likewise, there is still little consensus about but they constitute an integral part of the practical activities within which human bodies relate to other objects and subjects. This is to say, they are part of social practices [ ]. Reckwitz , Cf. Damasio Cf. Perler This list could be continued. Emotions on the level of production are among those least explored. They fall into two categories: specific emotions specifically generated and experienced during the writing process and generalizable emotions. The former can be identified through direct empirical experiments, documents, and via potentially very speculative conclusions based on generally valid social patterns, biographical circumstances, poetological features etc.
The latter depend on the respective aesthetic models and epistemological presuppositions applied and entail distilling a poetics of emotion. In the following, some suggestions will be made as to how patterns of emotion can be described. The questions raised above illustrate the close relationship between aesthetic levels of reality and levels of reality in the lifeworld. These conditions resemble those of the empirical, everyday world: there must be paradigms for generating fear, love, hatred, envy, guilt etc. In philosophy, the distinction between concrete and formal objects has become prevalent in this context.
Concrete objects designate the empirical or abstract, material or intentional triggers, while formal objects provide the at 6 Andringa Ronald De Sousa defines formal objects as follows: For each emotion, there is a second-order property that must be implicitly ascribed to the [emotion s object] if the emotion is to be intelligible. This essential element in the structure of each emotion is its formal object. However, so-called paradigm scenarios 8 are necessary to become acquainted with the vocabulary required to attribute emotion.
They enable us to understand how emotions are classified and assessed and how they function; i. Regarding their experience, understanding and assessment, emotions are, thus, determined by their motivation, focus, causality and goal-orientedness. In this respect, we are not only concerned with emotions from real-life and cultural paradigm scenarios, but also with aesthetic paradigms. Furthermore, the arts are not merely concerned with emotions as physical or cognitive experiences and assessments, or with self- and other-referential reactions.
Aesthetic emotions are also bound to take a specific form, appear in a specific mode, and place themselves in a relationship to existing and possible aesthetic paradigms of emotion. In methodological terms, this is the most difficult aspect to resolve, since aesthetic emotions contrary to real-life and cultural emotions do not primarily answer the purposes of communication, gaining insight into the self and others, or coping with, reacting to and assessing certain situations.
They observe scenarios and their vocabulary i. Therefore, the arts epistemologically and poetologically position themselves via the representations of emotions and feelings. She defines the parameters for describing the notion of emotion in its full extent as containing intentional representations , behavioural actions , physical-perceptual and hedonistic individually subjective components. In Voss s understanding, these components are entwined in the narrative context which establishes their specific semantic, communicative value.
In the following, the focus will be on the level of production, where paradigms of emotion, paradigm scenarios, and aesthetic patterns of emotion are applied. Aesthetically generated feelings in the arts and in literature are therefore never simple reflections or representations of lifeworld emotions. The specific quality of aesthetic emotions much rather lies in the juxtaposition of both the affirmative and dismissive attitude. This is to say that the arts affirm or reject and convey the perpetuation or a renegotiation of the discourses which relate to the notions of emotion and the related vocabulary.
In moderate cases, this should entail purification, sensitization and clarification processes; in extreme cases of dissolving the boundaries between the lifeworld and the arts it can result in direct interventions. Poetics of the former strand aim at intensification; those of the latter, on occasion, seek to vehemently disrupt common lifeworld and aesthetic standard scenarios. This often generates effects of immediacy or materially physical experiences which remain formally and narratively unsemanticized and unrelated, and which can be referred to as emotional events.
Especially physical, phenomenal feelings often produce an effect of artistic provocation by transgressing taboos and disrupting expectations. In this context, Thomas Anz rightly observes that in the case of artefacts both actions and reactions can be triggered. This approach allows literary production to be perceived as a process and therefore as a practice beyond the construction of a text, and moreover, allows productionrelated emotions to be understood as an interface between cultural fields of action, between the medium-determined elements of writing, of the body and of knowledge, and between psychophysical and social life.
One can say that writing processes are inherently linked to emotions. As a psychophysical process, writing relates to emotions as a prerequisite for self- and other-experiences, judgments, evaluations, understanding and perception; as a cultural practice, it is tied to respective media, techniques and societal norms; as an aesthetic practice, it is determined by poetological models and its own aesthetic impulses; finally, as a lifeworld practice, writing ultimately depends on 10 Cf. Anz Writing is therefore to be perceived not only as a concrete process linked to verbal and textual media; it is also a process that can transcend text and language boundaries, as the avant-gardes have continuously proved.
Here, emotions related to the aesthetics of production play a decisive role and contribute to shaping works of art and texts which demonstrate a formally and, in terms of media, multi-faceted interplay between production practices, commentaries, or the coupling of text and image. This permits a directness and simultaneity of emotions and feelings also in the physical sense , i. Hence, writing can also make apparent a modified, critical, or dismissive approach towards traditional concepts of author and work. This has recently been considered in the study of writing processes for which the notion of work encompasses the process of working on a text as well as everything that is produced during this process.
The theory of writing 11 is concerned with the entire writing process and thus evidences that literariness cannot be reduced to traces in the text but is also attained through and remains inseparable from productive real-life actions and practices. This includes, for instance, intertextuality, processes of authors reading and commenting on their own texts, and the concept of writing as reading.
The following will provide a brief outline of potential research and methodological suggestions. The researchers involved in Martin Stingelin s project Zur Genealogie des Schreibens On the Genealogy of Writing , however, put an even stronger focus on the nexus between writing and life or writing as life than the other models. Stingelin , ; Zanetti Cf.
In the context of emotion and writing, Roland Barthes is a useful point of reference in theoretical terms, as he strongly emphasizes the emotional aspect of text production, i. The latter thematizes and problemizes, within the text, the ensemble of the Schreibszene in its heterogeneity and non-stability. Barthes b. Barthes uses the term again and again, e. Barthes b: Cf. Campe Cf. Stingelin As constitutive elements of a text, which can be examined in terms of distribution of roles, institutions involved, media, traces of the body or of media etc.
Thus, the relationship between an unconditionally necessary Schreibszene and the respectively possible Schreib-Szenen in their particular constellations becomes apparent. As per Stingelin, the ensemble of the Schreib-Szene consists of: language semantics of writing , instrumentality technology of writing , gesture physical dimension , the frame, the distribution of roles and directing.
From this perspective of the inevitable coupling of writing and emotion, the following questions and areas for potential analysis are of interest for further methodological considerations: To what extent can both Schreibszenen and Schreib-Szenen be provocative? How do they relate to one another? What are the reactive consequences? Where and due to which procedures do Schreibszenen and scenarios of emotion form an interface of epistemological and discursive observations?
What are the contexts to which the individual scenarios refer? What are the traces of writing in the text? In concluding, let us return to the concept of formal and concrete objects in the context of paradigms of emotion. Per the thesis pursued here, literary texts can be understood as concrete objects which are preceded by actions and reactions of different natures and trigger active as well as reactive actions.
All concrete objects can be traced back to formal objects, and both their production and reception are only possible within the framework of generalized paradigms of emotion. Literature is therefore based on general patterns of emotions and also acts as a singular trigger for those patterns.
In terms of aesthetic and lifeworld-related paradigms of emotion, artistic texts are thus both concrete and formal objects in an entangled process that cannot be disentangled. This is termed writing as a process, where writing scenarios and scenarios of emotion.
Artistic texts are based on, and at the same time trigger, psychophysical as well as epistemologically and poetologically motivated reactions and practices. The texts do so via emotions and feelings, i. They are thus situated in a varyingly intense field of tension between the norm and its disruption, between breaking from and staying in character. Letters from Exile, , in: Poetics Today. Essais critiques, Vol. Ludwig eds. Situationen offener Epistemologie, Frankfurt a.
Eine lexikalische Spurensuche in der Moderne, Frankfurt a. Schreibszenen im Zeitalter der Manuskripte, Munich. Keen, Suzanne ed. Special issue of Poetics Today Kittler, Friedrich : Aufschreibesysteme , Munich. Eine Einleitung, in: id. Flaubert und die Affektpolitik des modernen Romans, Munich. Mellmann, Katja : Emotionalisierung. Von der Nebenstundenpoesie zum Buch als Freund. Menninghaus, Winfried : Ekel. Theorie und Geschichte einer starken Empfindung, Frankfurt a.
Meyer-Sickendiek, Burkhard : Affektpoetik. The Cognitive Value of Fiction, Heidelberg. Theorien, Anwendungsfelder, Perspektiven, Darmstadt. Schiewer, Gesine L. Grundlagentexte, Berlin, Stingelin, Martin : Schreiben. Einleitung, in: id. Zu einer Poetik der Emotionen in lyrischen und poetologischen Texten um , Berlin.
Zanetti, Sandro ed. Grundlagentexte, Berlin. In the following, I will employ many insights from a cognitive approach to emotions which is spelt out in more detail in the essay by Gesine Schiewer and combine these with categories and observations from narrative studies. Moreover, instead of focusing on the author, I start from a premise that was of crucial importance to Virginia Woolf, and posit that writing 1 This article draws on my book Reading Fictions, Changing Minds , particularly chapter three. It is, however, adapted to the topic of the volume, revised, and supplemented by literary examples and insights from recent studies on emotions.
In the following, I will use the terms interchangeably. In order to communicate emotion, authors have to inspire the imagination of readers, who have to become the author s fellow-worker and accomplice 5 and take an active part in the process of literary communication. According to Woolf, readers have to become co-creators, willing and able to apply their knowledge and their imagination in order to become immersed in the fictional world.
To adopt such an approach to the topic has two advantages. First, it is possible to integrate the findings of emotion theorists, such as the psychologist Keith Oatley, who has focussed on the relation between the reading of literary texts and the evocation of emotions. In addition, it is possible to combine the results of empirical studies on the emotions raised by reading literary texts with narratological categories in order to gain a deeper insight into the nexus between emotions and literature.
See, for instance, Koutsantoni , , 69 et passim. For this model, see, for instance, Holland and Schreier It is one of the most robust results in psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology that the meaning that a reader assigns to a text is a function both of textual and of reader characteristics. The philosopher Jenefer Robinson provides a good starting point, since her definition is based on an analysis of common features of emotion definitions in biology and psychology. For Robinson, an emotion is a process at the core of which is a set of bodily responses activated by an affective appraisal that is instinctive and automatic.
This automatic appraisal gives way to cognitive monitoring of the situation, which reflects back on the instinctive appraisal and modifies expressive, motor, and autonomic activity accordingly, as well as actions and action tendencies. This automatic response can be followed and changed by a cognitive reflection on the stimulus and one s own reaction, which can modify the automatic response and initiate verbal or non-verbal actions.
Even though the last stage of the process can involve verbal expressions, this definition is seemingly remote not only from works of literature but also from language or stories. However, both words and stories become important when one tries to understand what one feels. In order to identify an emotion, one cannot rely on the interpretation of physiological states of arousal alone: No degree of bodily feeling can alone reveal to you what your emotion is about; [ ] if you do not know what your thoughts and feelings are directed towards, you cannot find out merely through introspection of your bodily feelings.
In order to comprehend the relation between narrative and emotions, it is important to remember that one s emotions are shaped by the way the eliciting situation is construed. What we feel depends not only on the stimulus but also on the situation in which we perceive this stimulus and on the causes which prompted the action or state evoking our emotions. Greenberg 4, 7. If the sadness and the tears of the other are caused by some anti-social impulse, such as a failed attempt to harm someone else, we might well react with anger rather than empathy.
It is the construal and interpretation of the story preceding the situation that decides whether empathic feelings will be aroused and intensified or blocked and substituted by different responses. Research by Keith Oatley shows that a particularly arousing stimulus can involve extreme swings of emotions which may last for days and which depend on the retrospective interpretation of the stimulus. Such scripts resemble series of scenes following preordained plotlines. Anger, for instance, is closely related to specific kinds of narratives; what is interpreted as an insult or retribution depends on a particular constellation, in which the status of those who are involved in the action including their knowledge about the possible offensiveness of their 11 Hogan This link between empathy and narrative is at least implicitly confirmed by a number of studies analysing empathic reactions under laboratory conditions, which emphasise the importance of contextual appraisal and the personality or history of the object of empathy.
By now the importance of the particular situation for the emergence or blocking of empathic sharing is well established. Oatley Cf. Hogan the view shared by Oatley, Johnson-Laird, and the Sanskritists that emotions are embedded in stories. This finding by Angus and Greenberg already suggests that literary narratives may help readers to become acquainted with unfamiliar and complex emotions and emotion scripts and to understand them. Before elaborating on the affective value of fiction, however, I would like to briefly sketch some major ways of presenting and evoking emotions in and by narrative texts.
Though the terms may suggest that there is a clear dividing line between representation and evocation, I want to conceptualise these two as poles on a sliding scale, with some overlap in between, since emotions presented in texts may at the same time evoke readers emotions. In addition, we should be aware of the fact that readers inferences are necessary in order to imbue a given description with meaning. However, if one acknowledges that biological processes and automatic responses are at the core of an emotion, then a description would, in a narrow sense, involve the description of these physiological processes and this is probably not what most readers expect when they are reading an emotional narrative like a love story.
A straightforward representation of such physiological processes can be illustrated by a scene in Ian McEwan s novel Saturday In this novel, the main focalizer, Henry Perowne, is a neuroscientist whose approach to the world is shaped by his scientific beliefs; he sees the world through the lens of the neurosciences. This perspective also guides his understanding of the emotions of other characters, which he sees in terms of physiological processes.
The following quote shows how he perceives the aggression of a thug, Baxter, who is about to beat him. Perowne thinks that this man suffers from an incurable illness, Korea-Huntingdon-Syndrome, which is accompanied by extreme swings of emotions, and he hopes to escape a fight by offering medical help to the criminal. However, it turns out differently: 16 Cf. Sarbin Just as there are some narrative texts which have a higher degree of narrativity than others, some emotions are more intricately tied to narrative than others. This in turn is bound to imply the diminished presence of two enzymes in the striatum and lateral pallidum glutamic acid decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase.
On the other hand, readers have to be very attentive or to have some background knowledge in order to make the correct inferences and recognise that this is the description of an emotion. Interestingly, this focus on the physical symptoms at the core of an emotion was already present in eighteenth century novels.
At the time, handbooks of medicine spread the beliefs that finer emotions were due to finer nerves, that a humane and tender personality was connected to a particular physical constitution. In this vein, Yorick, the narrator of Laurence Sterne s novel Sentimental Journey, emphasises right at the beginning of the novel that he is disposed to give alms and expresses his tender disposition by remarking that he is in a state of mind in which a man pulls out his purse, and holding it airily and uncompressed, looks round him, as if he sought for an object to share it with In doing this, I felt every vessel in my frame dilate the arteries beat all chearily together.
Whereas McEwan and Sterne in these examples concentrate on the automatic physical response to a stimulus, other authors focus on the expression of emotions by means of behaviour or action. My next example is informed by a scientific understanding of emotion, but it also nods towards the importance of an awareness of and cognitive reflection on an emotion.
In a dystopia by the renowned neuroscientist Susan Greenfield, one of the characters, who belongs to a class of people who act purely on account of conscious deliberations and logic, at one point finds himself in a situation where he experiences something unusual: 17 McEwan Cf. Mullan ; Rousseau Sterne This is the second page of the text. But today was different.
Today my palms were wet, my breathing difficult and shallow, my heartbeat banging through my ribcage. I had to admit that this unpleasant though obvious sensation could only be called anxiety. In addition, there is a precise naming a description 21 of that unpleasant sensation, which is called anxiety. Providing a name for an emotion is the most obvious and more usual way of presenting feelings in fiction.
I do not think, however, that this is the most common or interesting mode of presenting emotions. Even if one looks at British eighteenth century sentimental novels, which focus on feelings and which are meant to evoke the feelings of readers, it seems that such explicit naming of emotions is less frequent than one might assume, and soon gives way to a description of the physical expressions of emotions, particularly with regard to body language.
The description of seemingly involuntary facial expressions and body language is a mode of representation that became very popular in the second half of the eighteenth century, in the British novel of sensibility. Such novels often refer to emotions by presenting the expression of these emotions, particularly in two modes: They describe the body language of the characters, their blushes, their tears, and their falling down on their knees on the one hand, and their verbal exclamations of surprise or joy on the other.
The following examples, excerpts from one of the letters of the young servant girl Pamela to her parents, serve to illustrate the focus on the allegedly involuntary expression of emotions: I screamed, ran to the bed, and Mrs. Jervis screamed too [ ]. I found his hand in my bosom, and when my fright let me know it, I was ready to die; I sighed, screamed and fainted away. And still he had his arms about my neck; [ ] I knew nothing more of the matter, one fit followed another, till about three hours after, I found myself in bed, and Mrs.
Jervis sitting up on one side [ ] Greenfield For the difference between words describing emotions and words expressing them i. Such implicit descriptions of emotions become more intricate in later novels. In Henry Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling , or in Sterne s novels, the focus is often on the description of the stimulus, such as a beautiful woman or a strange face, and on the effects this stimulus has on the character in question. This can be exemplified by the way Yorick, the narrator of Laurence Sterne s Sentimental Journey and a typical and capricious man of feeling, reacts to an imagined blush of a woman: I thought she blushed the idea of it made me blush myself we were quite alone; and that super-induced a second blush, before the first could get off.
The sensitive nerves, which were held to be the precondition of refined and tender feelings, and the blood that causes the blush seem to be more interesting to the narrator than any description or analysis of his emotions. This shying away from analysis is more pronounced in a second quote from this novel: The poor monk blushed as red as scarlet [ ].
I blushed in my turn; but from what movements, I leave to the few who feel to analyse. A preliminary word count of the three exemplary novels mentioned above seems to indicate that in later novels, such as The Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling, there is a surprising rise in the use of the word emotion or feeling, the exact meaning of which has to be gauged by the reader: Sterne Ibid. The numbers for the key words include all derivations such as sad, sadly, sadness. I occurrence per words Sentimental Journey occurrence per words Man of Feeling occurrence per words Emotion 0,11 0,73 1,91 Feeling 0,32 10,73 9,81 Tear 4,84 0,49 3,82 Blush 0,63 3,17 1,64 Tremble 2,63 0,98 0,55 Anger 5,16 0,24 0,55 Sadness 8,32 1,22 1,91 Joy 2,42 2,2 2,18 There is no overall tendency with regard to the number of occurrences describing bodily expressions of emotions that there are more blushes than tears in The Sentimental Journey, in contrast to the situation in Pamela, might well be due to the particularities of the story in the latter: the incarcerated Pamela, who is in danger of being raped by Mr.
In contrast, there is a significant rise in frequency of the terms emotion and feeling, which do not refer to a particular state; instead, they are open to readers inferences. A rather typical example of such a use of the term emotion can be found when Yorick commiserates with the weeping Maria: I sat down close by her; and Maria let me wipe [her tears] away as they fell, with my handkerchief. I then steep d it in my own, and then in hers, and then in mine, and 26 These are, however, just preliminary observations, which would have to be checked and analysed more thoroughly. Tel Aviv: Burshtyn Samuel.
Der masken bal fun der fardorbenheyt: dertseylungen, dikhtungen, eseyen. The Masquearde Ball From the Corruption. YIVO, Charpa Ulrich. Jews and Sciences in German Contexts. Case Studies from the 19th and 20th Centuries. Mohr, The authors examine the relationship between the cultural, religious and social situation of German Jews on the one hand and their scientific activities on the other. They discuss the sensitive question of the specificity of the approaches of Jewish scientists and draw attention to the debate concerning the relationship between Judaism and academic research, ranging from the early 19th century theorizing on science and Judaism to 20th century issues, e.
Contributors:Ute Deichmann, Anthony S. Chayabi Aharon shofet. Jerusalem: Davidowitz, Moshe, curator. NY: Yeshiva University Museum, Exhibition catalog. Dvir Yehuda. Jiudah shel ha-selihut be-shem hamikarei; Biblical Proper Names and their Mission. Oser HaMoreh, Ehrlich Louis Jacob. How a Jew Found Jesus. Texas: Arlington Printing, Third Edition. Born in Shehem came to Baltimore in father was a Rabbi, had many sundry odd jobs till he found Jesus, gave talks to the multitudes about his conversion. Eisenstein J D illustrations by Lola.
Hebrew Publishing Co, Eliezrov Dov Baer. Sefer Shalei Tsion. Jerusalem: Rav Kook, In Hebrew half pages, wear to spine , small library stamp tp. Epstein, Alex signed copy. Blue Has No South. Clockroot, Yeshiva University Museum, Stiff Wrapper. Friedland H. Cleveland: Three volumes charming stories in Hebrew for young people, each about six pages with wonderful illustrations, ex library with book plate and pocket.
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Ben Tzvi, Goodhart, Arthur. Five Jewish Lawyers of the Common Law. London: JHS, Good condition. Gordon Cyrus editor. Eisenbrauns, Grafstein, Melech. Sholom Aleichem Panorama. Canada: Jewish Observer, Hadas David. Ginsberg, Kibbutz Givat Brenner, HaLevi Moshe.
Kitve Moshe HaLevi. Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth. Racjman, Hamer-Jacklin Sarah inscribed by. Shtidt un Shtedtl stories. NY: Peretz, Hazkoni Starkman Moshe. Abraham Golomb Jubilee Book. After a living in Palestine from to , Golomb emigrated to Winnipeg, Canada, where he became principal of the Peretz School. In he moved to Mexico City, where for 20 years he ran the Yiddish schools. Heymann Fritz. Melzer, Fritz Heymann compiled this chronicle of Jewish adventurers because he has not been satisfied with the representation of Jews as passive heroes only during their existence in Diaspora.
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Recueil de chants religieux et populaires des Israelites. Neugroshel Mendl. Gezamlte Lider Collected Poems. Oz Amos. Under the Blazing Light Essays. Sifriat Poalim, In Hebrew emobssed stamp fep. Panofsky Erwin Saxl Fritz. Lei[zig: Teubner, Pappenheim, Shlomo, curator. The Jewish Wedding. Paver Chaver. Los Angeles: In Yiddish stains to end papers ,slight soiling to covers, illustrated by Moses Soyer. Pawer Chawer. Gerszon W Ameryce. Idisz Buch, Potok Chaim. Ethical living for a modern world : Jewish insights. JTS, ?. Raskin Saul. Erets Yisrael in vort un bild : indrike fun tsvey rayzes NY: Reznick, ?.
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Marbled Boards. Weinreich, Uriel ed. NY: Linguistic Circle, Wetzler Watz, Karl. Geschichte der judischen Gemeinde in Wetzlar von ihren Anfangen bis zur Mitte des 19 jahrhunderts Wetzlar: Mitteilungen Wetzlarer Gesch, Wolf Michael. Techunath Harabanim. Lemberg: Waydowicz, Yaniv Bracha editor. Timorah — Articles on Jewish Art.
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Biggs-Johnston-Withrow, Ben-Menahem, N editor. Jerusalem: HaRav Kook, Berman, Nancy, curator. A Walk Through the Past. Collection of different objects, Near Eastern and Jewish. Black, Mary. Tel Aviv: Beth Hatefutsoth, Filled with photographs. Bridger David. Der Onheyber. Farlag Matones, In Yiddish covers worn fep missing. Bromberg A. Jerusalem: Center for Hasidism, Central Conference of American Rabbis.
NY: Bloch, Prayer book was almost immediatley recalled to follow classical guidelines of Reform Judaism and new edition published Kohler was an important Reform Rabbi and author. Chamiel Haim editor. Abney Hasoham A collection of poems by Samuel ibn Sasson. Jerusalem: Sura, Chavel, Rabbi Charles translaot Maimonides. The Commandments sefer Ha Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Soncino, In one volume, dj torn the Positive Commandments pages and the Negative Commandments pages. Chmelnitzki, Melech,. Ru un Umru. Ignatoff, Drei Doroth Lider fun Beryl Broder. Margulies, Even Zahar Itamar.
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