Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking


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In New York City, 75 percent have been in foster care. Law authorities have led sting operations in connection with Super Bowl games. In reality, this number could be far higher due to the difficulty in getting exact numbers of victims, due to the secretive nature of human trafficking. In , the National Human Trafficking Resource Center reported cases of forced labor trafficking in the US, including which also involved sex trafficking.

Domestic servitude is the forced employment of someone as a maid or nanny, and victims are often migrant women who come from low-wage communities in their home countries. Domestic workers are commonly US citizens, undocumented workers or foreign nationals most commonly holding one of the following visa types: A-3 , G-5,NATO-7 or B-1 [40] The most common victims of this type of trafficking are women.

Similar means of control to Agricultural Work are common. Additionally, a lack of legislation regarding the duties and protection of these workers facilitates their exploitation. Employers commonly use the workers lack of knowledge of the language or legal system as a means of control and intimidation.

Many domestic workers are brought to the United States on a promise of a better life or an education. Perpetrators of domestic servitude are often well-respected members of their communities and lead otherwise normal lives. The Associated Press reports, based on interviews in California and Egypt, that trafficking of children for domestic labor in the U.

Families in remote villages send their daughters to work in cities for extra money and the opportunity to escape a dead-end life. Some girls work for free on the understanding that they at least will be better fed in the home of their employer. This custom has led to the spread of trafficking, as well-to-do Africans accustomed to employing children immigrate into the U.

Legally employed domestic workers are distinct from illegally employed domestic servants. While legally employed domestic house workers are fairly compensated for their work in accordance with national wage laws, domestic servants are typically forced to work extremely long hours for little to no monetary compensation, and psychological and physical means are employed to limit their mobility and freedom.

Traveling sales crews have the highest rate of calls to human trafficking hotlines after domestic labor counting from January to February The mobile nature makes it easier for traffickers to control their victims' sleeping arrangements and food and to alienate them from outside contact. Traffickers may withhold food or threaten to abandon their victims in unfamiliar locations without money if they do not comply. Unlike other professions, members of traveling sales crews are considered independent contractors even if they do not have any autonomy in their life outside of work.

As independent contractors, they are not overseen by several laws meant to prevent abuse, such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of Victims often incur debt from their traffickers, and enter into a form of debt slavery. Malinda's Traveling Sales Crew Protection Act [46] is a Wisconsin law that gives traveling sales crew members similar employment rights as part-time workers in Wisconsin are currently guaranteed by state law.

It also requires all crews to register with the Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection before going door to door in state communities. By registering members of the crew, alerts for members with outstanding warrants in other states can be identified and criminals detained.

Doyle says the intent of the law is to "stop companies from putting workers in dangerous and unfair conditions". The bill was passed in a form that applies only to sales workers who travel in groups of two or more. In the agriculture sector, the most common victims of trafficking are U. H-2A visa is a certification program, which is the employers contracting people from other countries, but first the employers must try to recruit U.

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H-2A visas are temporary visas that allow people from other countries to work in the United States, with some benefits contractors need to provide to them. Examples include, "farmers are required to these workers with housing and pay for transportation to the job, pay them at least three-quarters of the season at a higher rate, than the average paid rate of that work". Farm workers being controlled greatly, [ clarification needed ] their lives are vulnerable in fears that they may be deported back to their homeland.

Due to the nature of agricultural work as being seasonal and transient, the ability of employers to exploit these workers is high. Such exploitation may take the form of threats of violence and playing on vulnerabilities i. In some cases, workers are held in a state of perpetual debt to the crew leaders who impose mandatory transportation, housing and communication fees upon the workers which are high in relation to pay received, therefore further indebting the worker.

Crew leaders may also provide workers with H-2A visas and transportation to the place of work from a home country. Part of the H-2A visa, is that it does not provide an adequate choosing of their employment, how much would they be paid for their work, or even the hours, are not negotiable. Undocumented people who come without any visas, have a greater chance of choosing of where they wish to work and decide to leave the employment if they wish and have a better chance of not being exploited. In , the company Global Horizons was indicted on charges of trafficking over Thai workers.

With the program, bonded labor, it [ clarification needed ] was guaranteed that the workers were going to receive a visa that would allow them to live and work in the United States. Upon arrival, the company made a false statement to lure the workers and having a higher recruitment. Many were living in poor housing conditions up to a dozen living per home , threats, and physical assaults. According to Polaris hotline statistics, people from Latin America makes up almost one third of the population of victims of human traffic in the United States.

There are some circumstances or vulnerabilities that have led some Latin Americans to a higher susceptibility to victimization and human trafficking. The relationship between "push" factors that result in poverty i. Once the victims fall for deceitful labor recruiters, traffickers exploit vulnerabilities to keep victims under their control such as language barrier and illiteracy, fear of deportation due to lack of documentation, isolation from family, friends, and the public, unfamiliarity with surroundings and with the laws, indebtedness, drug dependence, and physical and psychological abuse.

Deportation can often leave trafficked victims at the mercy of their traffickers once again or it may cause harm to their families through either punishment by the traffickers or a loss of remittances that the traffickers had been sending to the family. In , three years after a 7. With the increase [ when? The colloquial term coyotaje refers to human smuggling along the Mexico-United States border.

The term used to imply that the relationship between the smuggler and the migrant ended once they arrived in the US. Unaccompanied minors are sometimes sold into prostitution by the trafficker, and their families are falsely led to believe that they died during transit. According to cases reported to Polaris-operated hotlines, survivors of this type of labor trafficking are disproportionately Latino male migrant workers, mostly from Mexico and Central America, on seasonal H-2A visas.

Despite the H-2A program requirement that employers supply workers with suitable housing, traffickers have also been known to subject victims to squalid living conditions, often denying them even necessities such as beds and indoor toilets. By far the most common method of control in agriculture, as in many other types, is economic abuse, including wage theft, improper deductions, and payment at piece rates rather than hourly rates. Data from Polaris has indicated that foreign national men and women from Mexico and Central America tend to be equally victimized.

Victims can be confined at the restaurant around the clock or be isolated in a nearby home provided by the traffickers. They may experience extreme isolation and confinement from the outside world, sexual harassment, high levels of monitoring, debt bondage , extreme wage theft, confiscation of critical documents such as passports, and restricted access to food and medical care.

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Most of labor trafficking survivors in construction are men from Mexico and the Northern Triangle El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala , most of whom have H-2B visas or are undocumented. Workers can enter their exploitative situations through formal job offers and misrepresented visa contracts. In some cases, workers may be charged illegal and exorbitant recruitment fees, which may be a method of control to keep workers in abusive situations.

Recruitment may also begin through an abusive migration journey or through word-of-mouth referrals. Severe brutality and abuse are the tactics used to control the victims, over half whom are minors. Woman and girls of ages 14—29 from the area demographics of Mexico and Central America are often victimized by bars and cantinas. Latin American women and girls that are smuggled into the United States are also often exposed to the world of commercial sex trade better known as "escort services".

There are two ways in which the operation can proceed: one is described as "outcall", where the traffickers deliver victims to the buyer's hotel room or their homes. The second option is "incall" which is when the customers cycle in and out of a hotel room while the trafficker extends the victims' stay. Many of these interactions between the buyers, the traffickers and victims took place on the website backpage. The website has been closed since January Brothels catering exclusively to Latino males , referred to as "Latino Residential Brothels", are a major vehicle for sex trafficking, with the victims being almost exclusively women and children from Latin America.

They typically own informal underground businesses in urban, suburban, and rural areas. Poverty can lead to increased trafficking in many different ways. Poverty affects the notion of individual choice and often drives families to make decisions out of desperation and lack of education. Furthermore, once this kidnapping and trafficking of the child occurs, the victim often accepts their situation and limits efforts to escape their imprisonment. Oftentimes, they wind up alone in a country where they do not speak the language, making it difficult to seek aid. The rate of human trafficking has directly increased in correlation with globalization.

Their desperate positions often make them subject to exploitation and trafficking into different forms of forced labor to support that economy. Some feminists, such as Carole Pateman, believe that exploitation is in both prostitution and sex trafficking. Current debates about modifications to Trafficking Victims Protection Act of policy are based about these two arguments. In providing aid for victims of sex trafficking the government must take a stand on whether or not they believe the sex industry and sex trafficking are inherently linked.

This results in serious infections, lifelong diseases, and sometimes even death. Even though the U. Jessa Dillow Crisp was of many victims of human trafficking, who had encountered the police in her town to be corruptive and involved in the trafficking. Laws against trafficking exist at the federal and community levels. Over half of the states now criminalize human trafficking, though the penalties are not as tough as under the federal laws. Related federal and state efforts focus on regulating the tourism industry to prevent the facilitation of sex tourism and regulate international marriage brokers to ensure criminal background checks and information on how to get help are given to the potential brides.

The federal government has taken a firm stance against human trafficking both within its borders and beyond. Domestically, human trafficking is a federal crime under Title 18 of the United States Code. Section makes it a crime to force a person to work against her or his will, or to sell a person into a condition of involuntary servitude.

Section similarly makes it illegal to force a person to work through " debt servitude ". The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of allowed for greater statutory maximum sentences for traffickers, provided resources for protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking, and created avenues for interagency cooperation. It also allows many trafficking victims to remain in the U. According to the section on Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons, the definition extends to include any "commercial sex act The law defines trafficking as "the prohibition against any individual who provides or obtains labor or services for peonage, slavery, involuntary servitude, or forced labor.

The benefits of the law, however, are dependent on the survivor's cooperation with prosecuting the perpetrators. This can be complicated if the victim fears retribution from their trafficker or has a fear of authority that remains from their country of origin. These reauthorizations have clarified definitions of trafficking and forced labor in order both to aid in prosecution of traffickers and to aid the victims of trafficking.

The reauthorization versions have also required the federal government to terminate all contracts with overseas contractors involved in human trafficking or forced labor. Extraterritoriality jurisdiction was also extended to cover all U. Prior to that, no comprehensive Federal law existed to protect victims of trafficking or to prosecute their traffickers". The government can help victims, once identified, by stabilizing their immigrant status. Callers include victims of human trafficking seeking services, as well as individuals and organizations seeking information about human trafficking.

Twenty-five states have mandated certain types of businesses to post a hotline. Safe Harbor laws protect victims of human trafficking from legal prosecution of crimes committed while under the influence of the trafficker and provide services such as counseling and housing and protect them from their exploiters. The federal Stop Exploitation Through Trafficking Act of is a law that encourages states to pass safe harbor laws.

It elevated the status of the National Human Trafficking Hotline and opened up the Job Corps program to sex trafficking victims. They recommend that the U. Doctors and health professionals are asked to look out for possible victims of human trafficking as most get to health care services at some time. Health care services have the chance to rescue them. A number of authorities and critics of contemporary anti-prostitution activism have pointed out that the hysteria over human trafficking as conflated with voluntary adult prostitution has all the hallmarks of a moral panic , and indeed closely resembles the white slavery hysteria at the beginning of the 20th century.

As is typical in such panics, broad claims are made with insufficient factual support, "horror stories" of victims take the place of research, and legislators rush to enact dangerously broad and vague legislation which infringes on civil rights. In a similar vein, ethnographers studying U. Ethnographers concerned with the validity of activists' impressions studied a federal anti-trafficking task force in a city that had been identified as a hub for domestic minor sex trafficking. In comparing local sex markets with the understandings of local social service providers, law enforcement officials, and anti-trafficking activists participating in the task force they found that many of the claims of widespread trafficking activity were either exaggerations or misinterpretations of anecdotal evidence; thus calling into question activists' ability to understand the context of what they were seeing.

Several state governments have taken action to address human trafficking within their borders, through either legislation or prevention activities. For example, Florida state law prohibits forced labor, sex trafficking , and domestic servitude and provides for mandatory law enforcement training and victim services. Washington State was the first to pass a law criminalizing human trafficking in According to the U.

State Department, Arizona is a main destination and transit point for labor and sex trafficking, both nationally and internationally. Some contributing factors include its proximity to Mexico, San Diego and Las Vegas, its warm weather, its network of freeways, and that it is a major conference destination, and home to many professional sporting events. California is particularly vulnerable because of "proximity to international borders, number of ports and airports, significant immigrant population, and large economy that includes industries that attract forced labor. Her first human trafficking case developed from a "home visitation", in which she was following up on a domestic violence incident.

She noticed the presence of a young female who turned out to be a victim of human trafficking. Rodriguez identified "red flags" that made her suspicious and eventually she helped get the victim out. The mission of FCAHT is to improve and provide outreach and services to victims of human trafficking throughout Florida by developing support programs, networking, coalition building, training, service delivery, and referrals to victims in need.

FCAHT works closely with community service providers to provide victims with emergency food and shelter, medical and psychological treatment and other services as needed to help these individuals restore their lives and their freedoms. FCAHT provides training to law enforcement agencies, medical facilities, faith based, civil and community organizations to bring awareness and recognition to the signs and symptoms of human trafficking. FCAHT also works very closely with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, and state and local law enforcement agencies in Florida as well providing guidance to law enforcement nationwide and Internationally.

FCAHT also works hand in hand with government officials, victim service providers, faith-based groups and civic groups throughout Florida, the nation and overseas. FCAHT has also assisted in the creation of new human trafficking laws within Florida as well as overseas. State policy: Georgia law OCGA prohibits the trafficking of persons for labor or sexual servitude with a more severe penalty for trafficking minors. Under this law convicted traffickers will register as sex offenders and pay into a state fund called New Safe Harbor to help victims of sex trafficking with physical, mental health, education, job training and legal help.

HB law went into effect on July 1, Another major step is that the age of consent, which is sixteen, or lack of knowledge of the victim's age is no longer a valid defense. Major issues: Atlanta is now a major transportation hub when it comes to trafficking young girls from Mexico and is one of the fourteen U. Craigslist is a major medium for the advertisement for sex and the site is known to get three hits per day. Since Atlanta has "the same ready access to commercial air and ground routes that draws businesses and travelers to Atlanta also entices criminals engaged in human trafficking".

There are numerous events and conventions in Atlanta that bring many people to the city which also exemplifies the issue. Organizations: Out Of Darkness is an organization that is against sex trafficking which is located in Atlanta Georgia; Out of Darkness falls under the section c 3. Their "mission is to reach, rescue and restore all victims of commercial sexual exploitation, that the glory of God may be known.

Finally, a book focused on the customers that provide the money, and therefore the demand, for sex trafficking. With a foreword from New York Times columnist and reporter Nicholas Kristof, The Road of Lost Innocence recounts the experiences of former child sex slave and anti-trafficking activist Somaly Mam, from her early life, when she was sold into sexual slavery at age 12, to her eventual escape and awakening as an activist. She has orchestrated raids on brothels and rescued sex workers, some as young as five and six; she has built shelters, started schools, and founded an organization that has so far saved more than four thousand women and children in Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos.

Her memoir will leave you awestruck by her tenacity and courage and will renew your faith in the power of an individual to bring about change. At a time when more people than ever before are enslaved somewhere on the planet, Aaron Cohen is a slave hunter — working to find and free human beings from various forms of bondage. Dawn Jewell weaves the stories of individual victims with a careful examination of the realities that propelled them into prostitution in North America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Alongside, she highlights ministries that are reaching one life at a time through prayerful visits to strip clubs, bars and brothels. The transforming power of the Gospel shines in men and women who have left lives of sexual exploitation and started new lives of dignity. Dawn traveled to Athens, London, Amsterdam, Brazil, the Philippines and beyond to interview exploited men and women and hear their stories firsthand. She trekked alongside volunteers and leaders to red light districts to discover how Christians extend a hand to people without hope.

Haugen leads us on a journey to freedom from the triviality and fear that can stifle our lives. In Nobodies , award-winning journalist John Bowe exposes the outsourcing, corporate chicanery, immigration fraud, and sleights of hand that allow forced labor to continue in the United States while the rest of us notice nothing but the everyday low price at the checkout counter. Based on thorough and often dangerous research, exclusive interviews, and eyewitness accounts, Nobodies takes you inside three illegal workplaces where employees are virtually or literally enslaved.

From poverty-stricken countries to affluent American suburbs, slaves toil as sweatshop workers, sex slaves, migrant workers, and domestic servants. From the memoirs of Micheline, a Haitian girl coerced into domestic work in Connecticut, to the confessions of Abdel Nasser, a Mauritanian master turned abolitionist, these stories heighten awareness of a global human rights crisis that can no longer be ignored. And no one wants to reveal that he once was a dog. Your reviews of any of these books, or others on the topic are welcome as well.

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Buy local by finding a local independent bookstore in your area. Interesting reading and shows what anti-trafficking organisations are up against. Selena, Thanks so much for reading and commenting. This organisation The Grey Man now operates in a number of Asian countries. Benjamin Skinner. Skinner goes into fairly deep detail about the politics of the USA and how they have affected for good or bad the slavery problem.

Great comment and great book recommendation. I believe I do actually have it listed, but it might be my list is too hard to navigate. Thanks for your comment, and sorry I am slow to reply. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email.

Notify me of new posts via email. Human Trafficking Movies. Lincoln, Stay updated via RSS. FreeTheSlaves has many docs. Can't wait for the book! Like African slaves in past centuries, many people from around the world are being held captive and forced to work. Some people are physically beaten to make them work. A few others are sold into slavery. Some are kidnapped.

But most people are tricked into becoming a slave. They are given false promises of money, new jobs, educations, and better lives. Then the promises are broken. The victims of human trafficking are trapped. Human trafficking is taking place in almost every country of the world. In fact, there is a good chance that modern-day slaves live not too far from where you live. According to a report from the U. State Department, human trafficking is one of the greatest human rights challenges of this century, both here and abroad.

Share this: Facebook Twitter Email. Like this: Like Loading July 11, at am. Cicely says:. January 12, at am. Selena says:. October 24, at pm. Carl says:. William McGurk says:. April 27, at pm. April 9, at am. Donzel says:. March 13, at am. March 13, at pm. May 27, at am. August 7, at pm. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Name required. Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Post to Cancel. The Global Slavery Index estimates that including U. On April 11, , U.

President Donald Trump signed the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act into law, which is aimed at closing websites that enable the crime to occur, and prosecuting their owners and users. Tier 1 means that the government is in compliance with the U. Each year, the Department of State releases data compiled on the state of human trafficking in many different countries including the U. According to the Attorney General's report, an estimated 14,—17, victims are trafficked into the United States each year, although that figure may be overstated.

The findings of the U. While the findings represent the government's best estimate, the authors caution that "the data described in this report reflect the information that was available to, and entered by, these state and local law enforcement agencies", and such data systems are still being established and are likely not recording all incidents. According to the Department of State , the U. Of the prosecutions reported by the Department of State, 32 were labor trafficking cases and 71 were sex trafficking cases.

During , ICE initiated cases. These investigations led to criminal arrests, more than double the number of arrests from the previous fiscal year, resulting in indictments and convictions. The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center is an inter-agency intelligence center that gathers information on illicit travel—including that of trafficking. The center also coordinates with foreign agencies and diplomats to monitor and fight trafficking on an international basis.

With the enactment of TVPRA , the HSTC was also charged with the responsibility of compiling a comprehensive inter-agency database on persons identified as victims of human trafficking. Human trafficking occurred consistently in high-population areas that serve as hubs for international travel and that have large immigrant populations. In the study, higher numbers of reported cases were found in California, New York, Texas, and Florida. This is consistent with the U. Department of Justice report that the largest concentrations of survivors of human trafficking were located in California, Oklahoma, New York, and Texas.

However, there are more victims than those who have applied for and been granted certification. First, certification requires that the victim be willing to cooperate with a police investigation. Following a police raid, some victims just want to go home, some victims don't want to cooperate with police and are deported, and some victims are afraid to testify against vicious traffickers.

The application for certification requires support from law enforcement. If the victim is not seen as useful for a case, or if the police don't want to pursue a case, they have no support to stay in the U. Nevertheless, the number of identified victims or convicted traffickers is far less than the official estimate by the U. State Department that as many 14,—17, individuals are trafficked into the United States every year.

A gap between the alleged number of victims and the number of confirmed cases also characterizes the situation worldwide. Department of State recently reported that 0. Some critics, like Markon in the Washington Post, note that all such estimates are deeply flawed. Department of Justice prosecuted defendants for human trafficking from to and gained convictions. From January through September , there were 1, alleged cases of human trafficking nationally; 1, of them, nearly 83 percent, were sex trafficking cases.

Sex trafficking has a close relationship with migrant smuggling operations headed by Mexican, Eastern European, and Asian crime organizations. Children who are considered runaways are at particular risk of prostitution or of being trafficked into the sex industry. David Finkelhor , a University of New Hampshire professor who is director of the Crimes Against Children Research Center, said "I wouldn't put any stock in these figures as indicators of what is going on today".

A study conducted by the International Labor Union indicated that boys are at a higher risk of being trafficked into agricultural work, the drug trade, and petty crime. Girls were at a higher risk of being forced into the sex industry and domestic work. In , the Department of Labor found 1, minors employed in situations that violated hazardous occupation standards. The same year, 5, children were employed violating child labor laws.

Due to the secretive nature of trafficking, it is difficult to piece together an accurate picture of how widespread the problem is. While they did not interview any of the adolescent subjects of the inquiry, they estimated through secondary response that as many as , American youth may be at risk of commercial sexual exploitation at any time.

Researchers said this was an underestimate of the actual number as isolated sub-groups outside their sampling methodology exist and could not be estimated. Especially vulnerable are homeless and runaways. The National Runaway Switchboard said in that one-third of runaway youths in America will be lured into prostitution within 48 hours on the streets.


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A study done in Atlantic City, New Jersey, by the same group incorporated an extended qualitative ethnographic component that looked specifically at the relationship between pimps and adolescents engaged with street based sex markets. At least 85 percent of these youths statewide have had some contact with the child welfare system, mostly through abuse or neglect proceedings. In New York City, 75 percent have been in foster care. Law authorities have led sting operations in connection with Super Bowl games.

In reality, this number could be far higher due to the difficulty in getting exact numbers of victims, due to the secretive nature of human trafficking. In , the National Human Trafficking Resource Center reported cases of forced labor trafficking in the US, including which also involved sex trafficking. Domestic servitude is the forced employment of someone as a maid or nanny, and victims are often migrant women who come from low-wage communities in their home countries.

Domestic workers are commonly US citizens, undocumented workers or foreign nationals most commonly holding one of the following visa types: A-3 , G-5,NATO-7 or B-1 [40] The most common victims of this type of trafficking are women. Similar means of control to Agricultural Work are common. Additionally, a lack of legislation regarding the duties and protection of these workers facilitates their exploitation.

Employers commonly use the workers lack of knowledge of the language or legal system as a means of control and intimidation. Many domestic workers are brought to the United States on a promise of a better life or an education. Perpetrators of domestic servitude are often well-respected members of their communities and lead otherwise normal lives. The Associated Press reports, based on interviews in California and Egypt, that trafficking of children for domestic labor in the U. Families in remote villages send their daughters to work in cities for extra money and the opportunity to escape a dead-end life.

Some girls work for free on the understanding that they at least will be better fed in the home of their employer. This custom has led to the spread of trafficking, as well-to-do Africans accustomed to employing children immigrate into the U. Legally employed domestic workers are distinct from illegally employed domestic servants. While legally employed domestic house workers are fairly compensated for their work in accordance with national wage laws, domestic servants are typically forced to work extremely long hours for little to no monetary compensation, and psychological and physical means are employed to limit their mobility and freedom.

Traveling sales crews have the highest rate of calls to human trafficking hotlines after domestic labor counting from January to February The mobile nature makes it easier for traffickers to control their victims' sleeping arrangements and food and to alienate them from outside contact. Traffickers may withhold food or threaten to abandon their victims in unfamiliar locations without money if they do not comply. Unlike other professions, members of traveling sales crews are considered independent contractors even if they do not have any autonomy in their life outside of work.

As independent contractors, they are not overseen by several laws meant to prevent abuse, such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of Victims often incur debt from their traffickers, and enter into a form of debt slavery. Malinda's Traveling Sales Crew Protection Act [46] is a Wisconsin law that gives traveling sales crew members similar employment rights as part-time workers in Wisconsin are currently guaranteed by state law. It also requires all crews to register with the Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection before going door to door in state communities.

By registering members of the crew, alerts for members with outstanding warrants in other states can be identified and criminals detained. Doyle says the intent of the law is to "stop companies from putting workers in dangerous and unfair conditions". The bill was passed in a form that applies only to sales workers who travel in groups of two or more. In the agriculture sector, the most common victims of trafficking are U. H-2A visa is a certification program, which is the employers contracting people from other countries, but first the employers must try to recruit U.

H-2A visas are temporary visas that allow people from other countries to work in the United States, with some benefits contractors need to provide to them. Examples include, "farmers are required to these workers with housing and pay for transportation to the job, pay them at least three-quarters of the season at a higher rate, than the average paid rate of that work". Farm workers being controlled greatly, [ clarification needed ] their lives are vulnerable in fears that they may be deported back to their homeland.

Due to the nature of agricultural work as being seasonal and transient, the ability of employers to exploit these workers is high. Such exploitation may take the form of threats of violence and playing on vulnerabilities i. In some cases, workers are held in a state of perpetual debt to the crew leaders who impose mandatory transportation, housing and communication fees upon the workers which are high in relation to pay received, therefore further indebting the worker. Crew leaders may also provide workers with H-2A visas and transportation to the place of work from a home country. Part of the H-2A visa, is that it does not provide an adequate choosing of their employment, how much would they be paid for their work, or even the hours, are not negotiable.

Undocumented people who come without any visas, have a greater chance of choosing of where they wish to work and decide to leave the employment if they wish and have a better chance of not being exploited. In , the company Global Horizons was indicted on charges of trafficking over Thai workers. With the program, bonded labor, it [ clarification needed ] was guaranteed that the workers were going to receive a visa that would allow them to live and work in the United States.

Upon arrival, the company made a false statement to lure the workers and having a higher recruitment. Many were living in poor housing conditions up to a dozen living per home , threats, and physical assaults. According to Polaris hotline statistics, people from Latin America makes up almost one third of the population of victims of human traffic in the United States. There are some circumstances or vulnerabilities that have led some Latin Americans to a higher susceptibility to victimization and human trafficking. The relationship between "push" factors that result in poverty i.

Once the victims fall for deceitful labor recruiters, traffickers exploit vulnerabilities to keep victims under their control such as language barrier and illiteracy, fear of deportation due to lack of documentation, isolation from family, friends, and the public, unfamiliarity with surroundings and with the laws, indebtedness, drug dependence, and physical and psychological abuse. Deportation can often leave trafficked victims at the mercy of their traffickers once again or it may cause harm to their families through either punishment by the traffickers or a loss of remittances that the traffickers had been sending to the family.

In , three years after a 7. With the increase [ when? The colloquial term coyotaje refers to human smuggling along the Mexico-United States border. The term used to imply that the relationship between the smuggler and the migrant ended once they arrived in the US. Unaccompanied minors are sometimes sold into prostitution by the trafficker, and their families are falsely led to believe that they died during transit. According to cases reported to Polaris-operated hotlines, survivors of this type of labor trafficking are disproportionately Latino male migrant workers, mostly from Mexico and Central America, on seasonal H-2A visas.

Despite the H-2A program requirement that employers supply workers with suitable housing, traffickers have also been known to subject victims to squalid living conditions, often denying them even necessities such as beds and indoor toilets. By far the most common method of control in agriculture, as in many other types, is economic abuse, including wage theft, improper deductions, and payment at piece rates rather than hourly rates. Data from Polaris has indicated that foreign national men and women from Mexico and Central America tend to be equally victimized.

Victims can be confined at the restaurant around the clock or be isolated in a nearby home provided by the traffickers. They may experience extreme isolation and confinement from the outside world, sexual harassment, high levels of monitoring, debt bondage , extreme wage theft, confiscation of critical documents such as passports, and restricted access to food and medical care.

Human trafficking in the United States

Most of labor trafficking survivors in construction are men from Mexico and the Northern Triangle El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala , most of whom have H-2B visas or are undocumented. Workers can enter their exploitative situations through formal job offers and misrepresented visa contracts. In some cases, workers may be charged illegal and exorbitant recruitment fees, which may be a method of control to keep workers in abusive situations. Recruitment may also begin through an abusive migration journey or through word-of-mouth referrals.

Severe brutality and abuse are the tactics used to control the victims, over half whom are minors. Woman and girls of ages 14—29 from the area demographics of Mexico and Central America are often victimized by bars and cantinas.

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Latin American women and girls that are smuggled into the United States are also often exposed to the world of commercial sex trade better known as "escort services". There are two ways in which the operation can proceed: one is described as "outcall", where the traffickers deliver victims to the buyer's hotel room or their homes. The second option is "incall" which is when the customers cycle in and out of a hotel room while the trafficker extends the victims' stay.

Many of these interactions between the buyers, the traffickers and victims took place on the website backpage. The website has been closed since January Brothels catering exclusively to Latino males , referred to as "Latino Residential Brothels", are a major vehicle for sex trafficking, with the victims being almost exclusively women and children from Latin America. They typically own informal underground businesses in urban, suburban, and rural areas.

Poverty can lead to increased trafficking in many different ways. Poverty affects the notion of individual choice and often drives families to make decisions out of desperation and lack of education. Furthermore, once this kidnapping and trafficking of the child occurs, the victim often accepts their situation and limits efforts to escape their imprisonment. Oftentimes, they wind up alone in a country where they do not speak the language, making it difficult to seek aid. The rate of human trafficking has directly increased in correlation with globalization. Their desperate positions often make them subject to exploitation and trafficking into different forms of forced labor to support that economy.

Some feminists, such as Carole Pateman, believe that exploitation is in both prostitution and sex trafficking. Current debates about modifications to Trafficking Victims Protection Act of policy are based about these two arguments. In providing aid for victims of sex trafficking the government must take a stand on whether or not they believe the sex industry and sex trafficking are inherently linked.

This results in serious infections, lifelong diseases, and sometimes even death. Even though the U. Jessa Dillow Crisp was of many victims of human trafficking, who had encountered the police in her town to be corruptive and involved in the trafficking. Laws against trafficking exist at the federal and community levels. Over half of the states now criminalize human trafficking, though the penalties are not as tough as under the federal laws.

Related federal and state efforts focus on regulating the tourism industry to prevent the facilitation of sex tourism and regulate international marriage brokers to ensure criminal background checks and information on how to get help are given to the potential brides. The federal government has taken a firm stance against human trafficking both within its borders and beyond. Domestically, human trafficking is a federal crime under Title 18 of the United States Code.

Section makes it a crime to force a person to work against her or his will, or to sell a person into a condition of involuntary servitude. Section similarly makes it illegal to force a person to work through " debt servitude ". The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of allowed for greater statutory maximum sentences for traffickers, provided resources for protection of and assistance for victims of trafficking, and created avenues for interagency cooperation.

It also allows many trafficking victims to remain in the U. According to the section on Severe Forms of Trafficking in Persons, the definition extends to include any "commercial sex act The law defines trafficking as "the prohibition against any individual who provides or obtains labor or services for peonage, slavery, involuntary servitude, or forced labor. The benefits of the law, however, are dependent on the survivor's cooperation with prosecuting the perpetrators.

Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking
Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking

Related Boys For Sale (Book 1): A Novel about Human Trafficking



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