I have. SingX tu tinhas, ou havias, ou hias, thou hadst. Preterperfect definite. C eu te'nho tido ling. Relies tern tido, they have-had. Hies tinhao tido, they had had. This tense may also be conjugated thus; tivera, titer as , tivera 3 tiveramos, tivereis, tiverao. I shall or will have. Cncs teremos,on haveremos, we shall or will have. Second Future. Third Future. Fourth Future. C tenhdmos, ou hajdmos nos, let us have. Optative and Subjunctive.
I join them together, because their tenses are similar. First Preterimperfect. It is compounded of the first preterimperfect subjunctive and the participle. It is compounded of the second preterimperfect subjunctive and the participle. Cse nos tivermos, if we shall have. I, elles tiverem, they shall have.
This tense may be conjugated also thus : houver, houveres, houver; houvermas, houverdes, houverem. See the synt, of the auxiliary Verbs. It is composed of the First Future and the Parti- ciple. Preterit; Sing.
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It is supplied in Portuguese by the prepositions a or para, and the verb in the infinitive; as, para ter, to have. Of the auxiliary verb haver. In which examples you may see that the verb havSr, when auxiliary, has generally the particle de and the verb of the infinitive mood after it; and E 50 PORTUGU ESE that then it denotes a firm resolution, possibility, or necessity of doing any thing, therefore it is not to be rendered into English by the verb to have ; as you may see by the second, third, and fourth future of the indicative mood.
Take notice, however, that in the foregoing examples the verb haver may be put before the other verb; but then it requires the particle de, and has a different meaning; as, in the first example, you may say, hfi d,e darvos, I must give to you. You must also observe that when the indicative present of the auxiliary verb haver is auxiliary to other verbs, as in the foregoing examples, you must cut off the last letters ei from the future of the verbs: and.
Moreover, when the preterim perfect havia is to be auxiliary to any verb, and it is to be placed after it, you must make use of hia, hias, hia 9 hiamos, him, hiao ; and so you may. Observe, that haver is sometimes Englished by to be; as, que ha de sir de mm? Relies sao or est do, they are. A eu era or estdva, I was. It is compounded of the pre terim perfect indica- tive, and the participle sido, or est ado.
Ceu tinha sido or est ado, I had been. This tense may also be conjugated thus ; fbra, or estivira ; foras, or estiveras ; for a, or estroera ; fora- mos, or estiveramos ; fords, or estivereis ; forao, or estiverao. Csejamos or estejdmos nos, let us be. Cque eu seja or estcja, that I may be, or that I be. S3 sejamos or estejdmos, we may be. It is compounded of the present conjunctive of the auxiliary verb? It is compounded of trie first preterimperfect sub- junctive of the verb tir, and its own participle.
Second Preterpluperfect. Ceu teria sido or estddo I should or would have been. First Future. C qudndo eu f8r or estiver, when I shall be. It is compounded of the future subjunctive of the verb tir, and its own participle. C qudndo eutiversidoQxestddo, when I shall have been. Undo sido or estddo, having been, Supine. Remarks upon the verb ser and estar. There is a considerable difference between these verbs, ser and estar, both in Portuguese and Spanish, In English there is no word to distinguish them, since they are both rendered into English by to be.
The three Conjugations of regular Active Verbs. A regular verb is such as is confined to general rules in its conjugation. An easy Method of learning to conjugate the Portu- guese Verbs. The general tenses are, the future indicative, the first and second preterimperfect subjunctive, and the first future subjunctive. The future indicative is terminated in all the verbs, in The imperfect subjunctive, in ra or sse, ras or sses, ra or sse; ramos or ssemos, reis or sse is, rao or ssem.
The second imperfect, in via, rias, ria ; riamos, rieis, riao. The first future subjunctive, in es, mos,. Note, that I have only put the termination of the second person singular of the future subjunctive, because the first and third of the same number are like their respective infinitives of the three conjuga- tions, which however keep both their last consonant GRAMMAR. As to the future indicative, you have no- thing to do but add ei to the respective present infi- nitive of the three conjugations, in order to form the first person singular; and if you add to the same infinitive presents, you will form the second person singular of it, and so of all the rest, by adding to the infinitive present, a, emos, eis, ad.
The imperfect subjunctive has two terminations for every person, both in the singular and plural ; but if you cut off the last consonant r of the infini- tive, and then add to it the terminations above- mentioned, you shall form the imperfect subjunc- tive, according to its two different terminations. Lastly, if you cut off the last consonant of the infi- nitive, and add to it the terminations above-men- tioned, you will form the second imperfect subjunc- tive.
The present indicative of the three conjugations is formed by changing the last letters of the infini- tive-, viz. The preterimperfect indicative is formed in the first conjugation, by changing the last consonant of the infinitive, viz. The perfect definite in the first conjugation is formed by changing the termination ar of the infi- nitive into ei, aste, 6u, amos, dstes, arad ; and in the second conjugation, it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into ij fate, So, Smos, estes, erao. The present subjunctive in the first conjugation is formed by changing the termination ar of the infinitive into e, es, e, emos, eis, em; and in the second conjugation, it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into a, as, a, amos, his, ao.
As to the imperative mood, you may only ob- serve, that the second person singular is always the same as the third person singular of the present in- dicative, in ail the conjugations. Thejirst Conjugation of the verbs in ar. The Indicative Mood. This tense is composed of the participle amddo, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter.
This tense may be conjugated thus, amdra 9 amdraSy amdra, amaramos, amdreis, amarao, or, tinha amddo, I had loved. When we find the conjunction if before the in- dicative imperfect, we must use the imperfect of the subjunctive or optative, when we speak by way of wish or desire ; as, If I did love, se eu amdsse, or amara, and not se eu amdva, if I had loved; if I had, se eu ivoera, twesse, and not se eu tiriha ; and so in all the verbs. Second Preterimperfect. It is composed of the participle amado and the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter.
Sectind Preterpluperfect. It is composed of the participle amado and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle amado, and the future subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. Peccar, to sin. Present subjunctive. Pagar, to pay. The other tenses are conjugated like aindr. Regular verbs in ar. Abafdr, to choke, or to smo- Agarrdr, to lay hold of. Alagdr, to overflow.
Abaldr, to shake. Amaldicodr, to curse. Abandr, to fan. Annular, to annul, or to Abastdr, to satiate. Abaxdr, to bring or let down. Apressdr, to press, or hasten. Abencodr, to bless. Aquentdr, to warm. Abocanhdr, to carp. A rgumenidr,. Abomindr, to abominate. Assoprdr, to blow. Abotodr, to button. Atdr t to tie. Acabdr, to finish. Avassaldr, to subdue, to con- Admoestdr, to admonish, quer. Affrontdr, to abuse.
Structure and transition
Azeddr, to sour. Present tense. The second conjugation of the verbs in er. Indicative Mood. Participle, Present. Esconder, to hide. Beber, to drink. Emvrender, to undertake. Comer, to eat. Meter, to put in. Comprehender, to perceive, or Offender, to offend. Promrter, to promise. Come ter, o commit. Res ponder, to answer. Conceder, to grant. Reprekender, to reprove. Correr, to run. Temer, to fear. Dever, to owe. The third conjugation of the verbs ending in ir. This tense is composed of the participle admittido, and the present indicative of the auxiliary verb, ter.
This tense is composed of the particle admittido, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter. I had admitted. Obtative and Subjunctive. This tense is composed of the particle, admittido, and the present subjunctive of the verb tir.
First Fufure. It is composed of the first future subjunctive of the verb tir and the participle admittido. Infinitive Mood. Undo admittido, having admitted. Nutrir, to nourish. Condnzir, to conduct. Reduzir, to reduce, to bring Introduzir, to introduce. Induzir, to induce. Traduzzr, to translate. Proditzir, to produce. Luzir, to shine.
Of the irregular Verbs in ar. There are in each conjugation some verbs which do not conform to the common rule, and on that account are called irregulars. There are but two of the first conjugation, which in some of their tenses depart from the rule of the verb amar, viz, estar and dar. We have already- conjugated the first, and the second is conjugated in the following manner. The preterperfect, preterpluperfect, and the se- cond pretei pluperfect, are composed of the participle dado, and the auxiliary verb tir, as in the regular verbs.
Of the irregular Verbs in er. I begin with fazer, podSr, and saber, because they occur oftenest in discourse.
Fazir, to do or make. Jazeis, you do. Jazi'a, faziao. Jan'a, jariao. Jeito, made or done. After the same manner are conjugated desfazir, to undo ;. Sabir, to know. Pretprperfect definite. Of the irregular Verb trazer, to bring. Preterperfect definite; trouxe, I brought.http://vpn567706038.softether.net/merry-christmas-india-stone.php
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The conjugation of the Irregular Verb ver, to see. The conjugation of the auxiliary verb dizer, to say. Second Imperfect. The Conjugation of the irregular Verb querer, to be willing. I may be willing, 6? But when it is not repeated, and is joined to the particle se, it is sometimes rendered into English by at least ; as, hum se qiier, one at least; and some- times by hoicever, when joined in the particle que ; as cqmo quer que. In all which cases, it is not to be confounded with the third per- son singular of the indicative of the verb querer. I shall put no other tenses of this verb than the present indicative, the imperative, and the present of the subjunctive, none but these being irregular.
I elected, 6? The verbs ending in eyo in the present indica- tive, change that termination into ia in the imper- fect, and into i in the preter-definite, and are so conjugated. You may observe that they lose the y through all the other moods and tenses. The verb crer, to be- lieve, is conjugated in the same manner. I Of the irregular Verbs in ir. Ir, to go. It is composed of the participle ido and the pre- sent subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter.
It is composed of the participle ido and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tSr. It is composed of the participle ido and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tir. The compounds of vir ; as convir, to be conve- nient ; sobrevir, to come unlooked for, are con- jugated in the same manner. Of the irregular Verbs, mentir, to lie, sentir, to feel; servir, to serve ; ferir, to wound. The compounds, desmentir, assentir, consentir, dis- sentir, presentir, are conjugated like mtntir and sen- tir ; and also the verbs ajferir, referir, coriferir, de- ferir, differir, inferir.
These verbs change the g of the infinitive mood into j in those tenses where the g would otherwise meet with the vowels o, as in the first person singu- lar of the present indicative afflijo ; or a, as in the third person of the imperative in both numbers, in the first plural of the same tense, and in the present subjunctive.
Of the irregular Verb seguir, to follow. The compounds are ptrseguir, to persecute; con- seguir T to obtain ;. Of the irregular Verb ouvir, to hear. Of the irregular Verb dormir, to sleep. This verb changes the o of the infinitive mood into u in the first person singular of the present indicative, thus, eu durmo, tu dormes, elle dorme.
Of the irregular Verb fugir, to fly away. It is also irregular in the imperative mood, where it is conjugated thus : foge tu,fuja Hle,fujdmos ms,fugi vos. The verb surgir, to arrive, or to come to an an- chor, has the same irregularity, and makes sicrto, in the participle passive. Of the irregular Verb pedir, to ask. This verb is irregular in the first person singular of the present indicative and subjunctive, as well as in the imperative, in which it changes the a?
Of the irregular Verb vestir, to dress. In all other tenses and moods it keeps the let- ter e ; and in like manner is conjugated the verb despir. Of the irregular Verb sortir, to furnish, or stock. Feyjo says, that the o of this verb is to be changed into u, in those tenses where the t is followed by e or a, and that it is to be kept, when the t is followed by i ; but in the Fabula dos planetas we.
Apolo- get. Of the irregular Verb carpir, to weep. This verb is defective, and is only used in those tenses and persons where the p is followed by i; as carpimos, carpis, we weep, you weep. I did weep, fyc. Of the irregular Verb parir, to bring forth young as any female doth. Of the irregular Verb repetir, to repeat. This is the common way of writing the irregular tenses of the verb sahir as well as those of the verb cahir, viz.
I fall,. Feyjo says that this verb changes the o into u, in those persons where it would otherwise meet with the syllables da, de, do. Of the irregular Verb advertir, to warn. Adoertir is irregular in the following tenses, only by changing vir into ver. Preterim perfect. It is composed of the participle pdsto, and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tir. It is composed of the participle pdsto, and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tir.
Participle passive. But you must take notice that we meet with some verbs neu- ter which may govern an accusative ; as dormir hum sono profunda, to sleep soundly ; iufui anddndo miu caminho, e nao disse huma paldvra, I went my way, and said not a word. I said seldom, because sometimes the verbs neuter may be conjugated with the verb set; as, sir bem fallddo, to have a good name. It is necessary to be acquainted with the nature of a verb neuter, to avoid mistakes in the participle, as may be seen in the Syntax of Participles.
Of Reciprocal Verbs. Yet we are to take notice that the pronouns con- junctive me, te, Sec. But in the imperative they ought to be placed after the verb, as in the following Example. In re- gard to the infinitive, we may say, he necessario ar- repender-se dos peccados, it is necessary to repent sins ; he necesshrio lembrar-se, it is necessary to remember ; and not se arrepender, or se lembrar. In like man- ner we may say, kmbrdndo-me, remembering, and not me lembrdndo.
But when the first preterimperfect is not preceded by any particle, then you must place the pronoun con- junctive after it; as, arrepcnderame tu disso, I wish I repented it. In the future you must always place the pronouns conjunctive before it; and so we may say, qudndo eu me lembrdr, when I shall remember : but not qudndo Su kmbrdr-me.
Note, all the verbs active may become recipro- cals. The Conjugation of the reciprocal Verb ir-se, to go away. I shall or will go away, tu te irds, 8cc. You must observe, that in the compound tenses the pronouns me, te, Sec. This verb is also said of vessels to signify their being leaky ; as vai-se a cuba, the tub leaks.
It is also used before the gerunds; as, o inverno vai-se acabdndo, the winter is drawing towards an end; elles vao-se prepardndo, they are preparing themselves: in which examples and in the like, the verb is to be rendered into English by the verb to be itself, and without addition of the adverb away ; and sometimes it is placed before the present infi- nitive ; as, xr-se deitar, to go to bed. Of the reciprocal Verb vir-se, to come away. Of the reciprocal Verb avir-se, to agree. Impersonal Verbs. There are three sorts of verbs impersonal, which have only the third person singular.
The first are properly im personals of themselves ; as 3 succede, it happens. The second are derived from verbs active, fol- lowed by the particle se, which renders them im- personal; as, dma-se, they love ; diz-se, they say ; mota-se, it is noted. The impersonal verbs of themselves are,, convem, it is convenient. M-se, it. Optative and Subjunctive, Present. In like manner all the verbs active may become impersonal.
In regard to these verbs, take notice, that when the noun that follows them is in the singular num- ber, you must put the verb in the singular ; if the noun be in the plural, you put the verb in the plu- ral: Example. Louva-se o capitao, they praise the captain. Ve-se hum ho mem, they see a man. Vem-sc homens, they see men.
When Ihe is used after the word se, then Ihe is to be rendered into English by his or her ; as, louva- se-lhe o valdr, they praise his or her courage. Conjugate after the same manner, succede-me, it happens to me. Many of these impersonal verbs have the third person singular and plural ; as, doe me a perna, my leg pains me.
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Of the Verb ser, to be. The verb ser is also used as an impersonal, as it appears in the following examples : he timpo de le- vantar-se, it is time to get up; era ttmpo de hir y it was time to go, fyc. You see by the last examples, that when the verb ser and the adjective are before the conjunctive mood, with the participle que, the con- junctive is rendered in English by the infinitive ; but if the verb ser is followed by the relative or par- ticiple que, it must then be rendered in English in the folio wing manner ; as eu he que tenhofeito aquillo, ffiS I who have done that ; tu he que tens, fyc.
You may observe that que is not relative in the last examples, and that it is left out in English. Of the Verb haver, when it is impersonaL It is to be so conjugated. Present, hd, or nafi hd, there is, or there is not, or there are, or there are not. Imperfect, havia, there was, or there were. Qudndo tiver kavido, when there shall have been. Conjugation of the Verb impersonal there is, ha, when it marks the place, through all its tenses. There is of it, There is not of it, Is there of it? Therre was of it, There was not of it, Was there of it? Was there not of it? There was of it, There was not of it, Was there of it?
There shall be of it, There shall not be of it, Shall there be of it? Shall there not be of it? That there may be of it, That there may not be of it, That there were of it, That there were not of it, There would be of it, There would not be of it, Would there not be of it? If there had been of it, If there had not been of it, Had there been of it? Had there not been of it? There would have been of it, There would not have been of it, Would there have been of it? Would there not have been of it? When there will be of it, When there will not be of it, ha la disso.
Ill When there will have been qudndo tivir havido la disso. Will there have been of it? Will there not have been too nao terd havido Id disso t much di it? In there having been too little tindo havido Id muito pouco of it. Most ways of speaking beginning with some, and the verb to be, are expressed in Portuguese by the impersonal ha; as, some friends are false, ha ami- gosfdlsos; some Christians are unworthy of that name, hd Christ dos que nao sao dignos de tal ndme.
Observe that ha comes before a substantive even of the plural number. The question of space is asked thus, qudnto hd de Paris a Londres? Of the impersonal Verb ha-se, it is necessary, or must. This verb answers to the Italian bisogna, and to the French ilfaut, and always requires after it the particle de, and the infinitive. Ha-se de hir, I or you, or we or somebody must go- Sometimes the verb coming after this impersonal, is Englished by the passive voice; as, ha-se defazfa isto, this must be clone. It is very often joined with mister; as, ha-se de mister din heir o para demdndas, one must have money to go to law ; ha-se de mister hum bom amigo para fazer for tuna no mfoido, to push one's fortune in the world, one must have a good friend.
As for the conjugation of this verb, you must make use of the verb to be with necessary, as I have already said. Present, ha-se, it is necessary. Imperfect, havia- se, it was necessary ; and so through all the tenses and moods. You must take notice, that sometimes the infini- tive that follows the particle de is placed between this impersonal and its particle se; as, ha-de achar-se, it 'will be found, and sometimes the infinitive pre- cedes the impersonal, and this follows the particle se ; as, achar-se-ha, it will be found ; and in this case you must not join the particle de to it.
Observe, that the infinitive may be also placed between the imperfect tense of this impersonal verb and its particle se; as, havia de achar-se, it was to be found ; but when the infinitive precedes both the impersonal and its particle se, then you must put the particle se before the impersonal, and make use of the imperfect hia, and not havia; so you niay say, achdr-se hia, and not achar-se-havia. The verb carpir is used only in those tenses and persons where thesis followed by an i; as, carpi- mos, carpis, we weep, you weep.
The verb socr is only used in the third persons of the present indicative of the preterimperfect of the sanae mood, and in the gerund; as, elle she , he is wont; elles soem, they are wont. Hie soia, he was wont; Sites soiao, they were wont. Ge- rund, soendo, being wont. Of the Participles.
Amado is likewise a noun adjective. Hdmem amado, mother amada; livros amados, let r as amadas. The passive participles are of the same nature as those called absolute in Latin ; and you must ob- serve, that having and being are often left out in Portuguese. Feito isto, having done this. Dito isto, having said so. Acabada a cea, after he or they have supped. The auxiliary and participle are not always im- mediately joined together in compound tenses ; as, Nos temos, com a graqa de Deos, vencido os nossos inimigos, we have, by the grace of God, overcome our enemies.
Of the Adverbs. HTHE adverb is that which gives more or less force to the verb. The adverb has the same effect with the verb as the adjective with the substantive : it explains the accidents and circumstances of the action of the verb. Adverbs of quantity ; as, how much, qudnto, how many, quant os ; or quant as ; so much, tdnio ; mucb,miato. Diligent e 7 diligent entente, diligently. Prudent e, prudent emente, prudently, Fiel, jielmente, faithfully. In order to assist the memory of those who.
A Collection of Adverbs. Abundantemente, abundantly. Adeds, farewell. Com razaojustamtnte, justly. Admit avelmente, "j ,. Ab s olutaminte, "absolutely. MaravilhGsaminte, V ,. Astutamente, cunningly. Agora, or por hora, now at Atreicoadamente, treacher- this time. Jdpara jd, now, immediately Be maraviiha, very seldom, Comcondifao,upon condition. A miudo, often. De parte, aside. De travez, askew, asquint; Tao, so. Faalmenfe, easily. Actualmente, actually. Antigamente, anciently. Quasi, pretty near, almost. Entdo, then. Desde entao, since that time. Dequdnda ha? De qudndo em qudndo, now and then, ever and anon.
Qudndo bem,or ainda qudndo , albeit, ahhough it should be. Qudndo muito, at the most. Qudndo m. Cd, here, or hither. Acoid, there. Trdz, or detraz, behind. Para trdz, backward. I'sto he, to wit. Em vez, instead, Tambem, also. Tdnto que A Logo que, j De pensddo, wilfully. Acdso, by chance. Finalmtnte, finally. Muito, much. Depressa, quickly. Aqui, here. Ate aqui, as far.
D'aqui em didnte, hencefor- ward, or. Mem, well. Amanhda pela manhda, to- morrow morning. Despots a" a' manhda, after to morrow. His website offers a variety of open-source self-management methods for those looking for examples. There are traditional industries that have been operating under distributed leadership models for decades.
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In fact, management is often a form of bureaucracy that exists only to make sure people are doing their job well — and yet they still fail. The magic of self-managed environments is that they allow every employee to be the best version of themself through open interaction and collaboration. Self-management and horizontality do not necessarily mean everyone is equal , but that through mutual respect, everyone is free to reach their full potential.
Nobody empowers anybody else, because power already exists within each person. APAC Brazilian Association of Protection and Assistance to Convicts is an example of a self-managed organization whose existence is directly linked to the belief that everyone has potential. If a hierarchical company wants to transition to self-management, a simple first step is to train and value the members of its team — something that, in theory, should always be done anyway.
This is also a subjective movement that makes people feel capable and confident when making decisions about themselves and others. The bottom line is all about putting the collective good first. Exibir texto integral. Piseagrama is a non-profit publication that reports on public spaces.
One edition is dedicated to self-management, including fifteen articles interspersed with exclusive photographs and illustrations. A facilitator can be useful in corporate environments and education. Homo faber, a new approach. Ecological Economics , 96, Goody, J. The power of the written tradition. Washington y Londres: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Gomes, A. Anthropology and education in Brazil. Anderson-Levitt ed. Kalman, J. Mihal, I. Revista Pilquen, 11 Educational policy, anthropology and the State. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell. Municipio de Chipaque s. Esquema de Ordenamiento Territorial.
Ong, W. Oralidad y escritura. Rockwell, E. Anthropological research on educational processes in Mexico. Spindler, G. Innovations in educational ethnography. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Street, B. Critical approaches to literacy in theory and practice.
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