Without multiplying numbers by providing separate places for every possible combination, it is difficult to make the various methods and mediums clear. A is a place for collecting Scientific Surveys and Travels, if it is considered unsuitable to place them in the Historical and Geographical division. The " Challenger " reports and papers would go here, and works of a similar character, but it is doubtful if more local works of a scientific nature should also go here.
Much will depend upon their general trend. Some books of scientific travel are a compound of geology, meteorology, philology, ethnology, botany, zoology, adventure, history, topography and sociology, which are most useful when placed at their local numbers. Others are largely description and sport, while some are restricted to the study of particular aspects of animal or vegetable life.
The proper place for such books must be decided by the classifier, but as a general rule, all purely scientific surveys of a general kind should go at A, while all others should get local numbers. B-C-D Physical Science. For example, C is the place specially reserved for the Telescope, but a Theodolite, without a numbered place, would have to be numbered as D There is no special number assigned for Library or Railway Indicators, although there is a place for Indicators in general B , consequently they would require to be numbered M The numbers from Biio to B are for Machinery in general, and not for special engines, which have special places.
B Stationary Engines may be driven by steam, electricity, wind, water, gas, oil or other power, and it would, therefore, be incorrect to put a book on the Stationary Steam Engine here. The most constant place would be C, where a number is provided for the purpose. On the other hand, the best constant place for an electric lift would probably be B, as in this case the motive power is less important than the purpose of the mechanism.
This rule applies to every kind of special building, and it will be seen that the numbers B to B are reserved for general works on Architecture, on construction, details, history, etc. For practical purposes it is probably most useful to number by instrument and divide by form. Combinations of more than two instruments must be arranged at C, etc. Poetry and Music. In all other cases, however full the poetical text may be, if accompaniments are given, number as Music, viz. Tunes only NU3 Kidson.
Traditional Tunes. Tunes only But CV0 Graham. Songs of Scotland. Operas, oratorios, etc. References or entries relating to poets and librettists must be furnished in catalogues. E-I Biological Science. In most cases the additional numbers of the Categorical Tables will be found sufficient, but in cases where it fails, recourse must be had to combination. The extraordinary number of processes, fimctions, organs, etc. Places have been found for all the chief departments of human biology, as distinguished from Com- parative Biology, but in cases where it is necessary, combination of numbers must be resorted to for minute classification.
Sin, Punishments, etc. Here again, provision has been made in the Categorical Tables for subdividing, say. Buddhistic Eschatology from Christian Eschatology. The instructions in the tables for keeping general works on Church Doctrine — J , and Church Government J — separate from works on the doctrine, government or institutions of single churches or beliefs must also be carefully noted. The difference is best shown by examples : — J Hones. Liturgies of the World General K It is possible, by using these church plus categorical numbers, to disentangle the vast literature of reUgion, which in some libraries is hidden away under one number!
M Language, Literature, Bibliography. Dictionaries of more than one language are to be arranged under the language which is not that of the nationality of the library, i. In a German library the same local treatment would occur. In the case of German-Latin, French-Greek, Italian-Russian and other combinations, arrange in an English library under the name of the language which comes first in alphabetical order.
Languages and Literatures go together. In many cases separate numbers are provided. They can, however, be divided by means of the Categorical Tables, thus : — M It is sometimes difficult to find exact places for some events, but generally, if they are spread over two or more reigns, it is best to place them in the reign when they commenced. To secure minute subdivisions in a reign the Chronological Tables can be used — Vssifz.
Battles are to be numbered in the countries or towns where they were fought, unless general battles, which go in O, or battles of a national kind which cannot be closely localised, like "Battles of Belgium" — T Special Local Collections, when very large, can, if necessary, be removed from the maip classification and re-arranged at the unappropriated class letter Y, under such special divisions as may be necessary, or those printed in Section X Biography including Correspondence and Criticism.
Also the biographies of individuals, in an alphabet of biographical names, to be fixed by the special Combination Tables at X, etc. When it is thought better to distribute the individual biography at subjects, a very inconvenient and frequently impossible task, the subject of the biography must get the topic number from the Classification Tables, plus the categorical number for Biography : — C Turner The main difficulty in the way of distributing Biography throughout subjects is the impossibility, in numerous cases, of determining in which class a man is most known.
Buckingham, who " Was chemist, fiddler, statesman and buffoon," is just the type of man who cannot be classified, and there are thousands like him. Apart from this, there are practical difficulties in the way so far as libraries are concerned, and unless for special purposes, biography should invariably be kept by itself. In collective Biography, topic is to be considered paramount to race, nationality or sex. Criticism, Ana, Biographical Collaterals. This is a difficult problem, as it is hard to determine, for example, what is the most constant place for criticism on Shakespeare and his works, in whole or in part.
For convenience sake it is thought best in this classification to gather all general criticism and commentary at the Biographical number, but to place commentaries and elucidations of single works with such works. Examples : — X Gervinus. Commentaries on Shakespeare X Hudson.
Titus Andronicus X Martin. Shakespeare's Female characters X Ellacombe. Plant Lore of Shakespeare X Hazlitt. Characters of Shakespeare's Plays N Dent's proposed arrangement of Shakespeare The effect of such an arrangement is to assemble every general or personal biography, study, criticism, or the ana of a celebrated individual at one well-defined and easily found place. On the other hand, studies of great works, hke the numerous expositions of Dante's Inferno, would naturally go with the poem, while the biographies of Dante would take the biographical niunber. Biographical Numbers for subdividing and maintaining Alphabetical order X, etc.
This table is to be used exclusively for numbering authors in any subject where necessary, so as to distinguish one from another. In large libraries this will be found necessary in many cases, both under subjects in catalogues and elsewhere. But in individual biography, fiction, poetry and other classes it will be found useful in pjroviding a fixed place for most alphabetical combinations, and assembling similar names at one place.
With regard to the distinction of authors under subject-heading, the following examples will show clearly how the numbers are applied. As indicated by the table itself, numbers are substituted for every arrangement of two or three letters of the alphabet, and by combining these when necessary any alphabetical combination can be numerically expressed. Natural history of Plants Bentley. Botany Bower.
See also at X Notation— the Numbering of Books. Numerous plans for effecting this numbering so as to differentiate one book from another have been devised, and the principal schemes are here briefly outlined. Author Numbers and Symbols. For whatever purpose required it seems much simpler to arrange books on shelves, in charging systems, in catalogues, or anywhere else, in a plain and easy sequence of author's names in alphabetical order, under each division or subdivision of a class or subject, thus : — F Claus C. Elementary text-book on zoology Edwards H.
Manual of zoology Hertwig R. General principles of zoology Parker T. Text-book of zoology Nicholson H. Manual of zoology Sedgwick A. Student's text-book of zoology Practically speaking, it is just as easy for anyone to find F Failing acceptance of this obvious and commonsense method, the second in ease of application is probably the use of the accession numbers, which most libraries apply to books in addition to any class or other number. These accession numbers are generally arranged in a progressive series, so that no two books can possibly be numbered alike.
When such numbers are used they can be applied in two ways : — F Elementary text-book of zoology Hertwig R. General principles of zoology or in dictionary catalogues — Zoology, Systematic Text-books. F Claus C. Elementary text-book of zoology F Hertwig R. General principles of zoology The charging number would thus become, in the case of Claus, Fooo.
Elementary text-book F General principles F Manual A fourth plan is to use the symbols devised by the late Mr. As the Biographical Table X, etc. In practical application the Cutter marks are used as follows : — F A fifth method, restricted to places, has been devised by Mr. Manual of ZooloffM 25 A sixth method consists in the use of the first three letters of the author's name, added to the class number, and iri most cases this is a sufficient mark for all ordinary purposes, though it is sometimes necessary to extend the number of letters used.
In actual practice it appears thus : — F Edwards F Parker Two methods of applying these letters are described in the Library World, Vol. Jast and Anderson respectively. Title or Book Numbers. A plan sometimes adopted is to use the ordinary alphabetical name tables. Cutter, etc. Thus if a Hbrary has a set of Mrs. Oliphant's novels, one gets the following collection of first words : — Plain No.
Composite N 0. Cutter Mark. Brown Mark. It is a method of distinguishing authors and books, and requires special records of authors' names and their works, otherwise numbers may easily be repeated. Neither of the numerical systems are of use save for the libraries in which they are employed, because the numbers mean nothing, and are mere arbitrary symbols which are not generally standardised. But both are clumsy, and, as has already been stated, not absolutely necessary. Copy Numbers.
Chronological Arrangement. There is a certain amount of convenience in this, and several plans have been devised for marking books so as to indicate what order is intended. The simplest scheme, that of Mr. Biscoe Date Table. Manual of Botany. Extended Date Table. For marking MSS. These symbols can be used for closely distinguishing events in the regnal years of monarchs.
Brown's Manual of Classification, p. A one-letter table can be devised by using varieties of type, as with the hall- marking of gold and silver plate, but of course, it would be imsuitable for manuscript purposes. Other Marks and Indications. Juvenile Books. But in these days of separate catalogues and hbraries, this is a refinement which seems hardly necessary. Controversial Subjects. The pros and cons of Vegetarianism, Slavery, Roman Catholicism, Temperance, and hundreds of other subjects may require indication in large libraries, and a simple way of doing so, if the books cannot be actually separated on shelves or in catalogues, is to mark the Class number with a sign which shall clearly distinguish the standpoint.
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Is smoking injurious? The smoking habit In cases where catalogues are properly annotated, no marking will be necessary. Book Sizes. It does not affect the class or subject numbers, and it is now the general practice to make size notation a part of the catalogue entry. In libraries strictly classified it is best to separate the folio and quarto books from the octavoes, and to store them in specially made cases.
Dummies or blanks can be inserted in the spaces which should be occupied by folios and quartos, bearing a reference to the place where they can be found. The Index. It also directs to some unnumbered subjects, such as historical events in the reigns of different monarchs, and other matters which are included in divisional or main headings. It has not been thought necessary to repeat under national heads the various sciences, arts and historical categories which could be assembled there, nor at subject-words has it been deemed proper to show the national divisions of such topics.
Biographical names are also omitted, and also all references to unnumbered geographical or historical areas. The Index number is the one to be applied in the first instance, when a subject is definitely ascertained, and the subdivisions must be taken from the Categorical Tables. From this rule there can be no departure by strict users of the classification. On the other hand, the speciahst or standpoint classifier who prefers to assemble all his material at a particular place, can do so by using the abstract place, and quahfying it by means of the Categorical Table or numbers from the Classification itself.
Thus, a bibliographer can use the mark M and then proceed to subdivide it thus : — M Aids to Classification. It is difficult, sometimes, to say where a place is, what a name means, when an event occurred, or who a person was, and for that reason the following books should always be accessible. A good Atlas, with a full reference index.
A good modern Gazetteer, general. A good modem National Gazetteer for the country in which the Library is. Haydn's Dictionary of Dates, last edition. Blair's or other full Chronological Tables. Beatson's Book of Dignities Haydn. A good Biographical Dictionary.
A Dictionary of Scientific Terms. Dictionaries of most languages. Smith's Century Cyclopaedia of Names. Useful for Vernacular forms. Willis' Flowering Plants and Ferns. Table for arranging an Author's Works. In applying this table to a special author, the letters can be added to the biographical numbers, and the books collected at A Collected Works of individual authors.
Poems chiefly in the Scottish dialect. Cantata, by Sir H. Table for arranging the works of a particular Author, suggested by Mr. Robert K. Dent, Borough Librarian, Aston Manor. The Man. General Biographies. Brief Biographies in books. Original documents, contemporary or 17th century biographical references e. Allusion-books, to PersonaUa Parentage and genealogy. Shakespeare's earlier Stratford Hfe. Was he a deerstealer?
Was he a schoolmaster? Was he a butcher? Other conjectures as to early training. Legends as to his early life : the crab-tree, etc. Courtship and marriage. Shakespeare in London. His personal connection with the stage. His London home. Did he travel abroad? His business enterprises. His family. His death. His wiU. Portraits and monuments: and works relating to the portraits. Shakespeare's home. Stratford-on-Avon generally. The Birthplace.
Anne Hathaway's home. New Place. The church and the grave. Shakespeare land. Shakespearean jubilees and other celebrations. His Works. Original issues. Separate plays and poems. Collected editions. All before Separate plays where specially edited or pubhshed complete. Not acted editions or adaptations.
Editions of the Works, after Anthologies, Concordances, and Indexes. Sources, and other books used or adapted by Shakespeare. General literary criticism. Criticism of separate plays in detail. Criticisms and Theories of the Sonnets. Archaeological illustrations of his writings. Evidences in his writings of Bible knowledge. Legal knowledge. Sea Terms. Country life, etc. Variora and conjectural emendations. Bacon theory. The Stage. SpeciaJ works on the contemporary stage. Lives of players : a Contemporaries ; b Later players. History of the stage. Archaeology and costumes. Graphic Illustrations of Shakespeare.
Topographical Prints and Drawings. Archaeological illustrations pictorial of his writings. Imaginative illustrations; portraits of his heroines, etc. Shakespearean Music : 1. Traditional or early music before Operas, cantatas, incidental music, and modern settings of the Songs. Table for arranging a County or other Area. Of course, this is only necessary in the case of large collections of books and prints, and will not be necessary in one out of a hundred libraries, save as regards the collection relating to the town or district in which the library is placed.
Two methods are shown of marking subjects, and where the numbers are taken from the Classification Tables, the arrangement may be assumed to have general application, but in the case of the table using the letter Y, the arrangement is intended for a large purely local collection. The area chosen is that of Edinburghshire, and it is clearly shown how the Categorical Table meets all ordinary needs. It is assumed, for the purpose of the Y arrangement, that everything is collected at Edinburghshire.
In the other arrangement only the purely local matter, as defined at No. Table Nos. Special Nos. V Yoo Edinburghshire, General V I — Bibliography V IOI Special Nos. I7O Y0O. Edinburghshire, Directories. Some may prefer to use an alphabetical order of place names instead of a geographical one, in which case Edinburghshire would arrange thus, Dalkeith coming out of its order : — Haddingtonshire V Edinburghshire Dalkeith. Jast, Croydon Public Libraries.
The following scheme is an attempt to apply classification not only to the literature of Library Economy, but also to the various written records and papers bearing upon the administration of libraries, and processes of work. The scheme under Library Economy in the Expansive classifica- tion is stated to be applicable to administrative papers, as well as to the printed literature of the subject, but it is essentially for the latter purpose and only incidentally useful for the former ; it is also nothing Hke detailed enough to be of much service in administration.
The present scheme differs from Mr. Madeley's in that while primarily a classification of office papers and library activities generally, it also covers the literature of Library Economy, and is far more detailed than any tables hitherto printed. The object of the scheme is to provide a number for every kind of document, letter, record, process or group of processes in a public library, and to refer by a single reference to the place of storage of every kind of material.
The ensuing scheme will achieve its purpose with the most prehistoric filing system, but the easy consultation and manipulation of papers will be aided by a good method of filing. It may be laid down as a general principle that, for the most part, any system of filing which binds papers is not so good as one in which the papers are loose. The system which lends itself best to such a system of arrangement as that following is the Vertical system. Folders are marked with the number of the topic, and all loose papers are filed under their various numbers.
Bound records, such as account books, stock books, etc. Space will not permit a full description of the appHcations of the system to the practical work of the library, but a few brief notes are appended on the more important of these. Use of other Class Numbers. But for the further division of any of these numbers to indicate form or geographical divisions, and in some cases subject, as e.
In the case of the Subject classification these numbers are simply added to the Library Economy numbers, the fact that the Subject numbers begin with a letter serving to prevent any confusion between these numbers and possible subdivisions of the Library Economy classification. If, however, a pure number, such as the numbers of the Dewey Decimal system, is used, it should be put in brackets.
Thus o being general works on Library Economy, o 02 will mark a manual of Library Economy, 02 being the Decimal form number for compends ; so also being pubfehers' catalogues limited to a subject, 59 will mark a catalogue of zoological works. It will probably be best to use Cutter alphabetical numbers for geographical divisions, running country, district, or town in one alphabetical sequence. In the case of a public library most corre- spondence is far more valuable under subject than if arranged alphabetically or by date.
For example, a library is running a course of lectures, all its correspondence dealing with that course will go in , and be kept together ; all its quotations other than books will go in , its accepted quotations in , and if wished, this material may be subdivided like the main classification, and all quotations for, let us say, shelving, 5 1, will then arrange together ; so again quotations for second-hand books will go in , and here will gradually collect a mass of valuable memoranda, which in an ordinary way would not be worth keeping, merely because it would be lost in a mass of other material.
Another advantage of the subject arrangement of letters is that a great deal of ephemeral material can be automatically weeded out, or destroyed at once, as it will usually be found that either the whole of the material coming under one number is worth keeping or not worth keeping, that is, as a group.
In the latter case, a manilla sheet, bearing its appropriate number, should be inserted in its proper place in the file, with an instruction not to keep, as e. Papers of candidates. These are not to he kept. A small library with comparatively little correspondence would not probably use the full scheme, but as familiarity with the scheme increases the tendency will probably be, even in this case, to divide pretty minutely, the advantages of close classification being very great. The main objection to classifying correspondence is the liability of placing a letter where it cannot be found when it is wanted, but this is a danger to some extent, of even an alphabetical arrangement.
It may be entirely obviated by having an alphabetical index of correspondents and entering the numbers under which each letter is filed under their names. This should be on cards or slips, and will serve as an address register, as well as an index to the correspondence. There is practically no more trouble in keeping this record than in indexing, an ordinary letter book. Of course, it is presumed that copies of all replies are taken on loose sheets and filed with the original letters. Receptacle Numbers. Thus a folder marked will contain letters, memoranda and other material to be submitted to the chairman.
This material, therefore, only temporarily rests in , on its way to be permanently filed in various other numbers. Similar receptacle numbers are , etc. Forms and Supplies. In many cases special numbers are allotted to supplies ; where there is no special number the supply will take the numbei of the subject or process concerned.
Thus being the process of plating, book plates or board labels will be marked Some Examples of the Marking of Supplies. Separating Current from Old Material. Usually the letter will come most conveniently in front, e. Pointing the Numbers. Glasses of libraries. I Legislation. Adoption of 47 Library Acts. Securing 48 Relations with other Cor- funds, etc. Rented or bought 67 Classification 32 Location. Sites 68 The Shelf 35 Materials. Loan 37 Heating.
Ventilation 72 Reference lib rary 38 Fittings. Furniture 73 News and magazine rooms 39 Care of building 74 Library syste m. Conunercial tion for an increase of Societies, institutions, clubs salary, another post, Education etc. Work on com- not technical, which are mittees. Mail Elementary schools 06 Public and social functions. This covers libraries are better in the general question 8 than here Relations with elemen- II Ideas of libraries.
Argu- tary education ments for and against Relations with secondary 12 Legislation education Limitation of rate Technical education Combination of library University extension authorities National Home Reading 13 State aid Union 14 Founding. Adoption of Li- Conferences brary Acts. Securing funds. Between the Ubrary bequests, etc. Programmes of Story-telling meetings 28 Circulars When it is desired to Divided Hke the main keep these together classification, e. General 23 Local factories, offices, etc.
Subdivisions for use under any of above heads. Note that descriptions of buildings, may go here or in Leases. Agreements these figures must be pre- 31 Premises. Rented or bought ceded by a cypher when 32 Location. Sites used with 22, e. Arehes ticular society : — Roofs 2 Library talks or lessons at Floors. Floor coverings. Floor preparations 3 Home work, involving work Doors. Galleries 6 Visits of classes, societies. Statuary and etc.
Pictures 8 Library notice boards, pla- 34 Plan. Librarian's Register of lecturers plan Register of subjects Competition. Rules, in- 25 Readings Divided like 24 structions 26 Exliibitions Plans sent in 27 WorlK with children Premiated designs The general subject and Assessor the special heads be- Accepted plans low. School Libraries Architect are 76 ; visits of school Builder children to Library are Contracts.
Reflectors, 35 Rooms prisms Public rooms Artificial lighting Lobbies. Lifts Diffused and general Lending library Ughting Reference library Point lighting. Lighting Special libraries of desks, tables, etc. Ladies' rooms Incandescent gas Children's rooms Electric light Lecture room. Study Arc rooms Incandescent Lavatories. Cloak Other methods of lighting rooms 37 Heating. Ventilation Other public rooms Boiler house Administration rooms Heating supphes. Coal, etc. Alcoves Delivery stations and Wood travelling libraries Metal Photographic dark Cases room Wood Storage rooms Metal Stack rooms Revolving For the stacks them- Close stacking.
Rolling selves, see stacks Valuable books. Strong Shelving for large folios. Table cases Supplies store Bookcase doors, curtains Janitor's store Adjustable devices Living rooms Book trucks, trays, car- Librarian's rooms. House riers, hfts Janitor's rooms Other shelving accessories Museum e. Trustees Rolltop Election. Co-opted Drawers members Cupboards Powers Lending and reference Standing orders libraries Chairman Indicators Matters to be submitted Magazine indicators to Chairman are Vice-chairman Reading stands, easels Clerk Show cases Minutes News and magazine rooms.
Notices of motion Newspaper stands, slopes Attendances Racks Next meeting Directory stands Reports. Returns Magazine indicators. Name tablets monthly or quarterly Lecture room Annual Blackboard. Screens Next annual and other means for Special displaying diagrams Subdivided like the main classic Lecturer's reading fication.
It is best to keep stand, desk two copies one here, and Lantern one with the subject. This Accessories and sup- is only for reports presented pHes to the committee ; reports Other special furniture obtained by the Hbrarian Library vans. Sites 3SS77 Safes Branches. Divisional com- Steps. Ladders mittees Original designs Visiting Divided hke the main Other classification Temporary 39 Care of Building The above may all be Protection from fire subdivided like 42 Staff fire drill Committee Cleaning 44 Staff Supplies Staff insurance.
Superan- Repairs. Renovation nuation Tools Vacancies. Li- brarians-in-charge. Sick leave Hohdays Duties Special Reports. Record of merit Training.
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Duties and powers of Ubra- rian Hours of opening and closing Membership. Readers' quahfications Home use of books Reference use This includes news and magazine rooms Care of books. Bookmarks Order in building Special regulations Actions at law. Prose- cutions Relations with other Corpora- tion Committees These numbers may be sub- divided for sub-committees, if wished. Both committee and sub-commitee num- bers may be further divided Hke 42, but the divisions of 42 must be preceded by a cypher when used with Committee numbers to pre- vent confusion with figures in fourth place indicating sub-committees, thus: — Education committee Minutes A sub-committee of Edu- cation committee Minutes Finance committee General purposes conunittee Sanitary committee Watch committee Parks committee Tramways committee Education committee Relations with other Corpora- tion Departments Letters conveying resolu- tions or written by instruction of a com- mittee go in General correspondence with officials goes here.
Under the principal official goes all corre- spondence with his de- partment Town Clerk Accountant. Inspector of Nuisances Communications re in- fected books go in Chief constable. Budget Income. Cash receipts Rate Endowment Investments Grants Rent Donations 5x27 Subscriptions Fines. Periodicals, etc. This is general order book. Corres- pondence re orders takes this number, and may be arranged in sequence of order num- bers. Bills unpaid Checked Allocated. Bills paid Rent Printing and stationery Lighting. Clean- ing Loan payments Publications May be subdivided like 8 Books.
May be subdivided Uke 62, e. Ledger Cash book Petty cash book. Postage book Loans Bank. Gum, paste, etc. Elastic bands Erasers. Bodkins Pins Drawing pins are Rulers Sealing wax. Seals String. Albums Calendars. Diaries Cardhoaids Tickets. Labels Stamps. Inking pads. Small printing outfits Drawing. Implements and supplies Drawing papers are Erasers are Inks are Pencils are Painting.
Implements and siip[ilies 55 Communication, Correspon- dence 1 Mail in 1 Immediate Referred to departments, to be deaJt with To report 1 Mail out 1 Departmental communica- tions Telephone. Pri- vate wires. Returns phones Obtained by the H- Abortive calls. Com- brarian for his own plaints use. If for com- Telegrams mittee they go in Interviews. Divided Hke Call book the main classifica- Copying. Copying press tion Copying supplies Departmental Correspondence file.
A — Z Subdivided by any Correspondence is best figures of the main classed by subject, classification indica- leaving only sundries ting departments. See prelimin- Note that two figures ary remarks should be used for 56 Office the departments in Memoranda. Office tickler class 7, thus : — Diary Lending li- Staff time book brary Orders for the day. Work Branches book.
Routine calen- Other departments dar are then marked : — Work in hand Order dept. Standing jobs, other Cataloguing than routine work dept. Sub- returns made to other divided like the main libraries, individuals, classification etc. May be Ideas. Projects be subdivided like the 57 Office contd. Typewriter 58 Office contd. Statistics of Duphcating.
Duplicator stock are ; of cata- machine loguing ; of Duplicator supphes classification ; of Printing. Samples On treatment of official forms and samples of supplies, see prelimin- ary remarks Other supplies Register of fittings Catalogues of supplies and fittings Kept here, but divided like the main classifica- tion.
General cata- logues of library appli- ances are marked 38 Recipes Divided like the main classification Notices. Bills Whether written or printed. Divided like the main classification. Personal examination 61 13 Guides 61 15 Reviews Marked Catalogues 61 2 1 Pubhshers' catalogues British 61 22 1 General Special, limited to a subject Special, limited to an author Juvenile Series Announcements, publishers' maga- zines Prospectuses of in- dividual books American When without Lon- don branch or re- presentatives Foreign may be divided like British Government and official publications Society and institution publications Booksellers' catalogues Sale catalogues Marked catalogues Desiderata.
Current 6I32I Special funds, e,g, tech- nical grant Special topics Reports on stock These are reports on authors or topics as represented on the shelves — as a guide in selection Staff Until adopted by li- brarian Readers' Suggestions by members of committee Queries. Donation book 03 Prices, nett book question All offers go in or T Order book , not under the This is for books and heads below other material classed Requests for donations in General order Books book is Works in progress 12 New books Annuals.
Continuations 53 Secondhand books Newspapers and magazines 4 Newspapers and magazines Check Hst 55 Pictures and photographs Pictures and photographs 56 Books for the bUnd Books for the bUnd 7 Lantern slides Lantern slides :8 Manuscripts 64 Book processes Subdivisions for use under Collating above numbers is Allocation to departments not divided : — and libraries I On order Sizing For records of Cutting material on order Stamping other than order Plating book, , e.
Continua- Exchange tions Withdrawn. Worn out. Printed cards Statistics 1 Marked copy 66 Cataloguing Cutting and mounting Various forms compared. Evaluation Arranged Pro and con. Discus- Inserted sion of general prin- Catalogues. Staff and public ciples Printed catalogues are Rules Author Author or name Subject Title Dictionary Subject Annotations Subject index Pictures and photographs Dictionary Music Special catalogues Reading lists Additions.
Cor- people respondence with au- Original copy and thors, publishers, etc. Printed lists porated in catalogues are 84 Readers' annotations Suggestions for lists Copy for printer Picture bulletins Checked Material Revised Classified and arranged Arranged In preparation Mounted Collection of bulletins Marked Fittings and supplies Proof Cabinets Copy for MS. Boxes Typed and written Sheaf binders. Card system Guides Slips Other Co-operative cataloguing Works of reference This head is for reference to works useful in cata- loguing.
It may also be used for the books themselves 68 The Shelf Shelf registers Shelving, daily examina- tion, dusting Case and shelf labels Plans, classification keys Stocktaking, records at shelf Stocktaking, reports Filing Material Pamphlets Broadsides. Cabinets Binders Portfolios Pigeon-holes Clips. Spikes Apron files. Shannon, etc. Rebinding Binding from the sheets Map and plate mounting Magazine cases Lettering Preservatives. Cleaning Contracts. Prices Binding book Binder's sheets or slips Binder's instructions General standing in- structions Imperfections.
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Missing parts. Binder's reports Binding of serials and con- tinuations. Register of particulars Rubbings. Sample volumes Use of colours. Loan Lending v, reference Open access. Open v. Access to reference shelves is Charging Charging systems Ledger Cards. Slips Indicator Issue Books in. Cards, in- dicator, ledger Restricted. Retained Stopped for examin- ation? Renewals Records. Call shps Classification of issues.
Issue sheets Return Books out Inter-library loans These are loans within the library system, e. Fined Posted Damaged.
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Lost Defaulters. Personal application Reported to Town Clerk Infected. Returned to sanitary department Errors. Queries, Tem- porary book cards, tickets Enquiries. Complaints This will take all en- quiries, suggestions and complaints as to man- agement, irrespective of department.
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En- quiries as to book guidance, etc. Ledgers Guides Sorting trays Book cards. Indicator books Pockets Registration 7 18 1 AppUcations. Readers' num- bers Tickets not issued. Ap- plications not in order. Queries Expiry. Renewals Members' register. Names Nimibers Guarantors Suspended. Call slips Service. Information desk This is for all enquiries relating to books, re- quests for guidance, etc. All other enquiries are Staff notice board Shelf permits Copying Notetaking 73 74 Copying extracts, MSS. Copying illustrations i Not photographic pro- cesses, which are Completing imperfect books.
This is copied matter ; com- pleting by obtaining printed matter from publishers, etc. Camera Accessories and supplies Reading and aids Personal guidance Use of reference books Courses of reading Choice of editions News and Magazine Rooms Many matters bearing on newsroom manage- ment go elsewhere, thus, supervision is ; periodical check list is ; filing periodicals is ; furniture and fittings go in Desirability Blacking out Discussion of the ques- tion. Process is Methods of arrangement and display Preparing newspapers and periodicals for tables Notice boards The boards themselves and their looking after ; not the matter which goes on them.
Covers all the notice boards in building Statistics Library System. Branches General and for the branch system as a whole. Subject lists Pictures and photographs Books for the Blind Lantern shdes Manuscripts 85 Indicator keys. Shelf keys 86 Rules. Arranged Proof Final proof. Make-up Author's corrections Copy on hand Departments. Lists of publications go in Here be- long reports, etc. III Specifications. Syy Grammar. Abbeys Ancient History. Bro-Cha Atrophy. Con-Dan I Work. Dri-Etb Dancing. Foo-Gro Etiology. Hun-Jou Guide Books. Man-Min Judges. S3S Mechanics. S7 Meteorology.
Nur- Minutes Meetings. Pie-Pro Parthogenesis Pleistocene. Sto-Tba Sermons. Spectrum Analysis. With Abbreviated Numbers for classifying small Collections, and qualifying other subject numbers. Generalia A ClassiHcation Tables. A ooo Encyclopedias. Arrange by Biographical Numbers Concordances Societies. Associations Divide by National Nos.
Eistedd- fod, etc. Divide by National Nos. Class Lessons. Bursaries Examinations Competitive Overpressure. Overstudy Cramming Certificates. Permutations Ratio and Proportion. Receipts Liabilities. Expenditure Balance Sheets. Budgets Auditing. Auditors Estimating. Generalia A Niello, etc. See also Tapestry. See also I Cioo Optics Curtains, etc. See also Photo-chemistry I Curtains, etc. Generalia A Phys. Traction Gyroscope. In 'tropical' worsteds this use of tightly spun, straightened wool combined with a looser weave permits the free flow of air through the fabric.
Worsted is also used for carpets, clothing, hosiery, gloves and baize. WeightAccording to the Craft Yarn Council, the term 'Worsted Weight', also known as 'Afghan', 'Aran', or simply 'Medium', refers to a particular weight of yarn that produces a gauge of 16—20 stitches per 4 inches of stockinette, and is best knitted with 4. December Learn how and when to remove this template message Before the introduction of automatic machinery, there was little difficulty in attaining a straight fibre, as long wool was always used, and the sliver was made up by hand, using combs.
The introduction of Richard Arkwright's water frame in , and the later introduction of cap and mule spinning machines, required perfectly prepared slivers. Many manufactories used one or more preparatory combing machines called gill-boxes before worsting, to ensure straight fibres and to distribute the lubricant evenly.
Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. January June December October Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Need even more definitions? Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! When you just know. Ask the Editors On Contractions of Multiple Words You all would not have guessed some of these A Look at Uncommon Onomatopoeia Some imitative words are more surprising than others Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts.
Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? A use for those SAT prep classes. Take the quiz True or False? Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Take the quiz Citation Do you know the person or title these quotes describe? Play the game Merriam Webster Learn a new word every day. Delivered to your inbox! It is a soft, easy care, wool blend that won't break the bank. Perfection is, well, perfect! The merino wool makes this blend one of the softest around.
It is very comfortable against the skin. Whether you are knitting a sweater for a newborn infant, an afghan for a friend, or something special for yourself, you will find that Perfection is a great all-purpose yarn. Perfection is available in a wide range of colors with many more colors available in the near future. Made in the U. All rights reserved.
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Encore Worsted continues to be the preferred yarn of knitters and crocheters. Perfect for beginners and experienced knitters. Encore, offers a great value for the crafters that demand the highest quality. Loved for the Machine Wash and Machine Dry, the extensive array of colors and proven dependability for decades. Bouncy 3- ply incorporates just enough wool for a fleecy feel. Materials:Encore Worsted:1 2, 2 g balls. Needles:US 9, or size necessary to obtain given gauge, stitch markers, 1 button or 1 yd thin ribbon. Materials:Encore Worsted shown in color tan: : 7 8, 9 g balls.
All are oversized. Finished Length: 23 Materials:Encore Worsted shown in color rust- color : 6 7, 8, 9 g balls. Materials:Encore Worsted shown in color Mauve- : 7 8, 9 g balls. Materials:Encore Worsted: 3 3, 4, 4 g balls. Needles: US Size 10 knitting needles. Needles: US Size 8 knitting needles or size to obtain gauge, however not too important.
Tapestry Needle. For Mittens: Size US 8 double points, stitch markers, scrap yarn. Contrasting Color CC : 2 2,2,2,2 balls of Encore shown in color Buttons are optional: 7 7, 8, 9, 9 buttons. Contrasting Color CC : 1 1,1,1,2,2 balls of Encore. Needles: US Size 9 knitting needles, tapestry needle. Needles: US Size 5 3. Needles: US Size 7 4.
Needles: Size H 5. There are 44 squares of Rose, 19 squares of Natural, for a total of 63 squares. Squares are arranged 7 horizontally and 9 vertically. Arrange colors as desired, or according to photo. For Baseball: US Size 7 4. The gauge of this pattern allows for optimum drape of the yarn. You may need to use a larger needle to achieve gauge. Size 10 straights for scarf; stitch markers. All Rights Reserved. Website by Outer Banks Internet, Inc. Materials: Galway Worsted color : 6 7, 8, 9, 10 g balls.
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